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Assess Knowledge
Define: monotheism, polytheism,
What was the ancient Egyptian’s
concept of the afterlife?
What was the significance of tombs to
the ancient Egyptians?
What were the ancient Egyptian’s burial
customs and traditions?
Tuesday, October 23, 12
Learning about Rwanda
Tuesday, October 23, 12
Anticipatory Set
What is genocide?
The destruction of ethnic groups has marred the progress of human history almost from its
beginnings. There are reports of genocide-like massacres in the writings of the ancient Greeks
and in the history of the Middle Ages. Indigenous populations in the Western Hemisphere, Africa,
and elsewhere were sometimes slated for elimination by their "discoverers" or their colonizers.
But ethnic massacre truly seems to have flourished in the twentieth century. The first great
genocide of the era dates to the First World War when hundreds of thousands of Armenians
were destroyed despite the protests of Western diplomats who, possibly for the first time, called
such killings a "crime against humanity." In the Second World War, after nearly a decade of
mounting anti-Semitism, Hitler undertook what he called the "final solution," reminding his
generals that "nobody remembers the Armenians." Churchill called it "the crime without a
name," and it was only in 1944 that a Jewish refugee from Poland teaching in the United States,
Raphael Lemkin, coined the term genocide in his book Axis Rule in Occupied Europe. Lemkin's
neologism was rapidly accepted. In 1945, the Nuremberg prosecutors charged genocide in the
indictment of Goering, Hess and the others, although the judges of the International Military
Tribunal kept with the official terminology used in their statute and described the Nazi atrocities
as "crimes against humanity." After the Nuremberg judgment, the UN General Assembly declared
genocide an international crime and directed that a treaty aimed at its prevention and
punishment be drafted.
Tuesday, October 23, 12
How was Africa divided by
European powers?
Tuesday, October 23, 12
The United Nations
Names to listen for and learn about: Gregory
“Gromo” Alex, Secretary-General Kofi Annan,
Major Brent Beardsley, General Romeo Dallaire,
Mbaye Diagne, UNAMIR
The Hutus: The majority community in
Rwanda, which during the colonial period
had suffered as second-class citizens.
With independence, Hutu gained power
and privilege through the patronage of
presidents Gregoire Kayibanda and Maj.
Gen. Juvenal Habyarimana.
Names to listen for and learn about: Interahamwe,
the plan of the “extremists”, Rwandan Armed
Forces (FAR)
The United States
Names to listen for and learn about: Madeline
Albright, Prudence Bushnell, Pres Clinton,
Anthony Lake, Laura Lane, George Moose, Michael
The Tutsis: Rwanda's largest minority
community, which Belgian colonials had
favored as the privileged class until Hutu
revolutionaries took over political
leadership in the early 1960s.
Names to listen for and learn about: RPF (Rwandan
Patriotic Front), President Kagame (the leader of
the RPF), Valentina (the girl in the church)
Tuesday, October 23, 12
Key Terms
Genocide: The deliberate and systematic extermination of
a national, racial, political, or cultural group.
Arusha Accords: Intended to end a three-year civil war
between Rwanda's Hutu government and Tutsi-led RPF
rebels, the August 1993 peace agreement called for a
democratically elected government with a broad-based
transitional government leading to the elections. Hutu
extremists feeling marginalized by the agreement
orchestrated the genocide.
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC): A
global humanitarian aid organization, the ICRC estimates
it saved as many as 70,000 Rwandans targeted by the
genocide without the use of force or weapons.
Tuesday, October 23, 12
Assess Knowledge
Define: genocide, Arusha Accords (1993), International
Committee of the Red Cross, Tutsis, Hutus Rwandan Patriotic
Front (RPF), Interahamwe, Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR),
Tuesday, October 23, 12