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Crimes against humanity
 premeditated
– to meditate, consider, or plan
 oppression – the exercise of power or
authority in a burdensome, unjust or cruel
manner; usually directed at a group or
category of people.
 Gendercide – the act of the mass killing of a
particular gender but capturing the opposite
Usually the men were killed but the women and
children enslaved.
 The
term genocide was coined in 1944 by
Raphael Lemkin. Prior to that there was no
specific term for the crime.
 Winston Churchill had called it “the crime
with no name.”
 The term is a legally recognized crime under
international law.
 The term is not applied to the killing or
destruction of “political” groups.
 The
act of genocide has occurred throughout
history: from ancient times to the present.
 The term should not be confused with the
term gendercide which was frequently
practiced in the ancient world.
 The
destruction of the Medianites by the
Israelites on orders of Moses: Second
Millennium BCE
 The destruction of Carthage by the Romans
in 146 BCE: Third Punic War
Sometimes referred to as the “First Genocide”
group of Anasazi, American Southwest, in
800 CE
 Zulu Kingdom 1810 – 1828, under Shaka Zulu,
neighboring people that were conquered
were subsequently put to death, men,
women and children.
 Native Americans from 1490 – 1890, and
Understand that the use of the term genocide is
debated among scholars and historians for what
happened to the Native Americans.
 Armenian
Genocide – conducted by the
Ottoman Turks against the Armenian people.
Still denied by the present Turkish
government: began April 24, 1915
 Holodomor – Soviet Russia. The Soviet
government used a forced famine against the
Ukrainians in 1932-1933. Over 3.3 million
died. The famine was also used in other
neighboring areas.
 The
deliberate and systematic extermination
of a national, racial, religious, or cultural
Classification – All cultures have
classifications that divide people into “us
and them.” This is not in and of itself a
terrible thing. It is only when it leads to
polarization of people within the same
2. Symbolization – Names and other symbols
are used in classification. Again, this in itself
is not a problem. It does become a problem
when the use of symbolization is used to
discriminate and dehumanize.
Some common symbols include flags,
crosses, coats of arms, star of David, etc.
3. Discrimination – A dominant group uses law,
custom, and political power to deny the
rights of other groups. The powerless group
may be denied civil rights or citizenship.
4. Dehumanization – One group denies the
humanity of the other group. Members of it
are equated with animals, vermin, insects or
The Hutus called the Tutsis
“cockroaches” before the killing began in the
Rwandan genocide.
5.Organization – Genocide is always organized,
usually by the state, using militias or other
quasi-military groups as their enforcement
6. Polarization – Extremists drive the groups
apart. Hate groups broadcast polarizing
propaganda. Laws may forbid intermarriage
or social interaction. Extremist terrorism
groups target moderates, intimidating and
silencing the center.
7. Preparation – National or perpetrator group
leaders plan the “Final Solution.” They often
use euphemisms to cloak their intentions,
such as referring to their goals as “ethnic
cleansing,” “purification.” They build
military forces and indoctrinate the populace
with fear of the victim group.
8. Persecution – Victims are identified and
separated out because of their ethnic,
religion, or other target group identity.
Members of victim groups may be forced to
wear identifying symbols. Death lists are
established. Murders begin to take place.
Internal measures can still stop the
genocide (although in this stage it is very
difficult) but may require non-military
assistance from other countries or regional
9. Extermination – This begins and quickly
becomes the mass killings that we know and
characterize as genocide. At this stage only
armed intervention can stop the killing.
10. Denial – Takes place during and following
the killing. Evidence, such as mass graves, is
removed as much as possible.
The clear exception to this stage is the
Cambodian genocide (1975-1979). The Khmer
Rouge government under the dictator Pol Pot
never denied their actions or attempted to
remove evidence of their crimes.