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Crimes against humanity premeditated – to meditate, consider, or plan beforehand. oppression – the exercise of power or authority in a burdensome, unjust or cruel manner; usually directed at a group or category of people. Gendercide – the act of the mass killing of a particular gender but capturing the opposite gender. Usually the men were killed but the women and children enslaved. The term genocide was coined in 1944 by Raphael Lemkin. Prior to that there was no specific term for the crime. Winston Churchill had called it “the crime with no name.” The term is a legally recognized crime under international law. The term is not applied to the killing or destruction of “political” groups. The act of genocide has occurred throughout history: from ancient times to the present. The term should not be confused with the term gendercide which was frequently practiced in the ancient world. NO RACE, ETHNIC, OR RELIGIOUS GROUP IS UNTAINTED BY THE PRACTICE OF GENOCIDE. The destruction of the Medianites by the Israelites on orders of Moses: Second Millennium BCE The destruction of Carthage by the Romans in 146 BCE: Third Punic War Sometimes referred to as the “First Genocide” A group of Anasazi, American Southwest, in 800 CE Zulu Kingdom 1810 – 1828, under Shaka Zulu, neighboring people that were conquered were subsequently put to death, men, women and children. Native Americans from 1490 – 1890, and beyond. Understand that the use of the term genocide is debated among scholars and historians for what happened to the Native Americans. Armenian Genocide – conducted by the Ottoman Turks against the Armenian people. Still denied by the present Turkish government: began April 24, 1915 Holodomor – Soviet Russia. The Soviet government used a forced famine against the Ukrainians in 1932-1933. Over 3.3 million died. The famine was also used in other neighboring areas. The deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, religious, or cultural group. 1. Classification – All cultures have classifications that divide people into “us and them.” This is not in and of itself a terrible thing. It is only when it leads to polarization of people within the same country. 2. Symbolization – Names and other symbols are used in classification. Again, this in itself is not a problem. It does become a problem when the use of symbolization is used to discriminate and dehumanize. Some common symbols include flags, crosses, coats of arms, star of David, etc. 3. Discrimination – A dominant group uses law, custom, and political power to deny the rights of other groups. The powerless group may be denied civil rights or citizenship. 4. Dehumanization – One group denies the humanity of the other group. Members of it are equated with animals, vermin, insects or diseases. The Hutus called the Tutsis “cockroaches” before the killing began in the Rwandan genocide. 5.Organization – Genocide is always organized, usually by the state, using militias or other quasi-military groups as their enforcement groups. 6. Polarization – Extremists drive the groups apart. Hate groups broadcast polarizing propaganda. Laws may forbid intermarriage or social interaction. Extremist terrorism groups target moderates, intimidating and silencing the center. 7. Preparation – National or perpetrator group leaders plan the “Final Solution.” They often use euphemisms to cloak their intentions, such as referring to their goals as “ethnic cleansing,” “purification.” They build military forces and indoctrinate the populace with fear of the victim group. 8. Persecution – Victims are identified and separated out because of their ethnic, religion, or other target group identity. Members of victim groups may be forced to wear identifying symbols. Death lists are established. Murders begin to take place. Internal measures can still stop the genocide (although in this stage it is very difficult) but may require non-military assistance from other countries or regional organizations. 9. Extermination – This begins and quickly becomes the mass killings that we know and characterize as genocide. At this stage only armed intervention can stop the killing. 10. Denial – Takes place during and following the killing. Evidence, such as mass graves, is removed as much as possible. The clear exception to this stage is the Cambodian genocide (1975-1979). The Khmer Rouge government under the dictator Pol Pot never denied their actions or attempted to remove evidence of their crimes.