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Section 9.4: Energy
1) Work is done an object is caused to move a certain distance
2) Energy is the ability to do work or cause change
I. Kinetic Energy
3) Kinetic Energy of an object due to its motion
KE of an object depends on its mass and speed
 KE = ½ x Mass x (Velocity)2
 Example; Bowling ball has greater KE than golf ball moving at same speed
II. Potential Energy
4) PE is stored energy that results from the position or shape of an object
A. Gravitational Potential Energy
5) GPE is energy related to an objects height
An object’s gravitational potential energy depends on its weight and on its height
relative to a reference point.
 GPE = Weight x Height
 Example; Skier with greater mass will have greater GPE if jumping from = heights
B. Elastic Potential Energy
6) EPE is the energy of objects due to it being stretched or compressed
 Example; archer’s bow, spring
III. Energy Transformation and Conservation
7) Mechanical energy is combined KE and PE of an object
 ME = KE + PE
A. Transformations Between Potential and Kinetic Energy
Any object that rises/falls experiences change in PE and KE.
2) Example; pendulum (highest point = greatest PE, lowest point = greatest KE)
B. Conservation of Energy
Law of Conservation of Energy states that energy can not be created or destroyed
 Energy is transformed, not destroyed