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Physiology and Health: Chapter 8-10 Summary
The ________ of the human male produce sperm from germline cells in seminiferous
tubules and make testosterone in __________ cells.
The mobility and viability of sperm are maintained by fluids secreted by the ____________
gland and ______________ vesicles.
The __________ of the human female contain _____________ cells that produce ova (eggs)
each surrounded by a protective ___________. Hormones made by the ovary are
oestrogen and ___________________.
The pituitary gland releases ______________________________ hormone (FSH) and
interstitial-cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH)/_______________ hormone (LH).
In men, FSH stimulates sperm production and ICSH promotes __________ production. The
concentration of testosterone is maintained at a steady level by _____________ feedback
control.
In women, FSH stimulates the development of a follicle containing an ovum (egg) and the
secretion of ________________. LH triggers _________________ and brings about the
development of the corpus _______ which secretes progesterone.
Oestrogen stimulates the proliferation of the _______________ and progesterone
promotes its further development and __________________.
The ________________ cycle lasts for about 28 days and involves a follicular __________
and a luteal phase.
Fertility in men is _________________; fertility in women is _____________, being
restricted to the 1-2 days following ovulation in each monthly cycle.
Infertility may be caused by failure to ovulate, blockage of _____________ or failure of
_____________ in women, and low _________ count in men.
Methods of treatment of infertility include the use of drugs that ______________
ovulation, artificial ____________________, in--______________ fertilisation (IVF) and
intracytoplasmic sperm __________________ (ICSI). Pre-implantation _____________
diagnosis may be used during IVF to check an embryo for chromosomal defects before
implantation.
Some methods of contraception are based on _______________ knowledge of the
menstrual cycle and the ______________ of fertile periods. Other physical methods
depend on _____________, intra-uterine devices or ____________. Some methods
prevent follicles from being stimulated and eggs from being released. Others cause
thickening of cervical ___________.
During antenatal care, a _______________ scan is made by ultrasound imaging to
determine the stage the pregnancy has reached. An ________________ scan is used to
detect physical problems with the fetus.
Signs of medical conditions suffered by pregnant women can be detected using screening
tests for _________________ chemicals. These allow risk of genetic disorders in the fetus
to be assessed and may be followed up by ________________ tests.
A _______________ is a display of a compliment of chromosomes arranged in pairs to show
their form, sixe and number.
During _____________________, a sample of amniotic fluid is taken to obtain cells for
karyotyping to check for ________________ abnormalities. During ____________ villus
sampling, cells for the same purpose are obtained from the placenta. This procedure
carries a higher risk of ___________________ than amniocentesis.
A Rhesus-negative mother is given ______________ antibodies after birth of a Rhesuspositive baby to destroy and Rhesus __________________ before her immune system has
time to respond to them.
_________________ screening is carried out on newborn babies to check for metabolic
disorders such as PKU. Information about particular characteristics can be collected from
the members of a family and be used to construct a ________________ chart. Single gene
disorders show different patterns of inheritance, such as autosomal recessive.
Wordbank
Amniocentesis
anomaly
antigens
anti-Rhesus
Avoidance
barriers
biological
chemical
chorionic
Chromosomal
continuous
cyclical
dating
diagnostic
Endometrium
follicle
follicle-stimulating genetic
germline
Implantation
injection
insemination
interstitial
karyotype
Luteinising
luteum
marker
menstrual
miscarriage
Mucus
negative
oestrogen
ovaries
oviducts
Ovulation
pedigree
phase
postnatal
seminal
sperm
sterilisation
stimulate
testes
testosterone
vascularisation
vitro