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Ancient Greece and Hellenistic Age Review Word Scramble
1. The Greeks' closeness to the sea led them to become a seafaring people. This means that they
made their living mainly from fishing and _____________________ with other countries.
2. Crete is Greece's largest ________________________ and is where the Minoan palace at
Knossos was located.
3. Greece is covered by rugged ______________________ that led them to develop independent
4. Greece has a mild Mediterranean ____________________. This made democracy easier
because it made it easier for people to hold political meetings such as debates and votes in
legislative assemblies and trials with massive juries.
5. Greece experiences many earthquakes and volcanoes. These heavily influenced Greek history
and _______________________ beliefs.
6. The ages of ancient Greek history in order from earliest to latest are the ___________________,
Mycenaean, Dark, Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic ages.
7. The Minoan Palace at Knossos had 1500 rooms and many images of bulls and bull horns. This
indicates the historical ___________________ that can be found in the Myth of the Minotaur or
any Greek myth for that matter. The mazelike palace may have given rise to the labyrinth in the
myth, and the bull images indicate that the Minoans may have worshiped the bull in some kind
of bull cult.
8. Recent archaeological evidence indicates that the Minoans may have engaged in the sacrifice of
__________________________ at some point in their history. This may help explain the origin
of human sacrifice in the Myth of the Minotaur.
9. Each Mycenaean settlement revolved around a hilltop _____________________ called a citadel.
10. We know that the Mycenaeans were warlike because of the weapons and armor found in their
____________ sites.
11. The most famous Mycenaean artifact is the golden death ______________ of Agamemnon
named after the legendary King Agamemnon from The Iliad.
12. A significant amount of evidence about Mycenaean life comes from the epics The Iliad and The
Odyssey. These were written by the famous ancient Greek blind poet named _______________.
13. The famous citadel at Mycenae is known for its Cyclopean walls and its ________________
14. The Iliad traces the moral development of _________________________, the Greeks' most
famous warrior during the legendary Trojan War.
15. The Greek Dark Age began when a group called the Dorians invaded Greece from the north and
became the first true Greeks. As a result of the invasions, many Mycenaeans abandoned their
settlements and the Greeks lost _______________________ for about 400 years. The Dark Age
ended when the Greeks began using Classical Greek.
16. Classical Greek writing evolved from the Phoenician __________________________.
17. The primary purpose of the Olympic _________________________ was to honor Zeus, the king
of the Greek gods. The athletic events were of secondary importance.
18. The main development of the Greek Archaic Age was that the ____________________, or Greek
city-state, became the center of Greek political life.
19. Each ancient Greek city--state had a high, fortified area with temples on top called an
20. Each ancient Greek city-state also had an open-air marketplace called an
21. The largest of ancient Greece's city-states was ________________ with about 300,000 people.
22. The ancient Greek city-state of Athens was best known for developing direct _______________.
This is a type of government where all citizens can debate and vote on all issues.
23. In a ______________________ democracy, people elect representatives who vote for them. The
United States has this type of government.
24. The famous individual who reorganized the ancient Greek city-state of ____________________
into a militaristic (warlike) society was Lycurgus the Lawgiver.
25. The main reason why Sparta developed a militaristic society was because they feared
_____________ revolts.
26. The Greeks defeated the _______________________ in both the First and Second Persian Wars.
27. The Persians attacked Greece during the First Persian War because the Persians wanted to get
revenge against ______________ for helping the Ionian Greeks rebel against them.
28. During the Battle of ______________________, the most decisive battle of the First Persian
War, the Greeks pushed the Persians back to the sea. A very long race gets its name from this
29. 300 Spartans bravely led the defense of a _______________________ pass at Thermopylae in
northern Greece at the start of the Second Persian War. Though the Greeks lost, the Battle of
Thermopylae stalled the Persians giving Greeks further south a chance to mobilize for war.
30. The most decisive battle of the Second Persian War was the _________________________
Battle of Salamis. During this battle, the Greeks defeated a much larger Persian fleet by luring
them into a narrow strait and using their faster and more maneuverable ships to destroy much
of the Persian fleet. Over the long term, this hurt the Persians' ability to resupply their war
effort. As a result, the Persians eventually went home.
31. The most important impact of the Second Persian War was that Athens used its leadership of an
alliance called the Delian League to create an ____________________________ for itself. It was
able to do so because its 200-ship fleet had been crucial to victory during the Battle of Salamis.
32. The Greeks defeated the Persians during the __________________ Wars.
33. The term _______________________ refers to a period in history that set standards that later
peoples strive to achieve.
34. The most famous statesman in Athenian history was Pericles. He was not a king. Instead, he
influenced Athenian citizens like the leader of a _______________________ party would do
today. He used his political skills to make Athens' direct democracy its most democratic. He also
used Delian League funds to build great buildings on the Athenian Acropolis, as well as Athens'
Long Wall to Piraeus.
35. Under Pericles, people were paid to serve in government jobs. These included people who
voted in legislative assemblies, people who served on Athens' huge juries and people who held
important government jobs. Also, people were chosen by lottery (randomly) to serve in many
top government jobs and on juries. Important government jobs were usually limited to one-year
terms. In addition, the Areopogus (a sort of Supreme Court) wasn't allowed to declare laws
unconstitutional. All of these developments, as well as others, allowed more people to
participate in government and prevented powerful people from dominating ________________.
36. The three orders, or styles of ancient Greek architecture, are __________________, Ionic and
37. The most admired ancient Greek temple is the ___________________ on the Athenian
Acropolis. It is probably the most copied building in the world today.
38. Most Classical Greek sculptures were made of _____________________. The statues we have in
museums today are ancient Roman marble copies of Greek ordinals.
39. Classical Greek sculptures depicted men and gods in the __________________, or perfect, form.
40. The Greeks were the first to create dramas Dramas are __________________. The Greeks made
two types of dramas: comedies and tragedies.
41. A tragedy is a drama in which a ___________________ falls from the heights of great power
because of a tragic flaw, usually hubris (excessive pride).
42. In the famous tragedy written by Sophocles called Oedipus the King, Oedipus unknowingly kills
his father and marries his _____________________. After denying his god-controlled fate
throughout the play (his tragic flaw), he discovers what he has done and severely punishes
himself by poking his own eyes out and giving up his kingdom.
43. Early Greek comedies were mostly satires. These are plays that poke fun of important
______________________ and/or historical events. Aristophanes' satirical play The Clouds
helped damage the reputation of the ancient Greek philosopher Socrates.
44. What separated ancient Greek philosophers and historians from the thinkers who came before
them was that both tried to explain ideas and historical events without referring to the _______.
45. The three most famous ancient Greek philosophers associated with Athens were Socrates, Plato
and _________________________.
46. The ancient Greek philosopher Socrates taught the young people of Athens about
___________________ (right behavior) and was wrongly accused of corrupting the youths of
Athens and disrespecting the gods.
47. Socrates was sentenced by one of Athens' huge juries to kill himself by ____________________.
This happened in part because a play called The Clouds hurt his reputation.
48. Socrates also had a bad reputation because he annoyed people in Athens by relentlessly
(continuously) questioning them until they were convinced that they were wrong. This form of
repeated questioning is the basis of cross-examination in our __________________________
system and is called the Socratic method.
49. The ancient Greek philosopher Plato argued in this book The Republic that societies should be
led by _____________________-kings.
50. The ancient Greek philosophers Aristotle and Plato differed on how to find the truths of the
universe. Plato argued that the senses were deceiving, so you should rely on ________________
(thinking) to determine the truths of the universe. Aristotle, on the other hand, argued that one
needed to rely on one's senses to collect lots and lots of data. Then, and only then, should one
draw conclusions on the nature of the truths of the universe.
The father of Western history who wrote a history of the Persian Wars was
Major Greek gods mentioned in class include Zeus, the (king of the gods),
_____________________ (the god of music and prophecy), Dionysus (the god of wine, partying
and drama), and Athena (the goddess of wisdom and strategic warfare).
Sparta defeated Athens during the Peloponnesian War (431 to 404 B.C.E.. This decades-long war
began mainly because Sparta feared Athens' growing power after the Second Persian War. The
long-term impact of this war was that no city-state ever became as _______________________
as Athens had been before the war. This led to shifting alliances of Greek city-states fighting for
power in the years after the war. This made Greece an easier place to conquer.
Philip II of Macedon took control of Greece by 336 B.C.E. through war, alliances and _________.
By the time Philip II had taken over Greece, the Persian Empire stretched from eastern Greece
to northwestern _______________ (only a small portion of it), as well as Egypt and part of Libya.
The Macedonian leader who succeeded Philip II of Macedon in 336 B.C.E. and whose conquest
of the Persian Empire started the Hellenistic Age was _________________ the Great.
After Alexander the Great died in 323 B.C.E., his top ___________________ divided his empire
into four major kingdoms. These kingdoms are called Hellenistic kingdoms.
The Hellenistic Age refers to the period in history lasting from 323 to 31 B.C.E. during which
Greek ___________________ spread throughout the lands of the former Persian Empire.
The most famous and intellectually advanced Hellenistic city was ___________________, Egypt.
It was known for its great lighthouse, library and museum.
Possibly the most admired of all scientists of the Hellenistic Age was _____________________.
One of his major discoveries is the law of buoyancy. This law explains how boats float.
Hellenistic __________________ depicted their subjects in very dramatic poses. They were
known for their fine details, such as details found in wrinkles and clothing. Also, some of these
sculptures depicted ordinary people instead of people and gods in ideal form.
The Hellenistic Age ended in 31 B.C.E. when Octavian Caesar (later called Augustus) took control
of Egypt by defeating Mark Antony and Cleopatra.