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Name: ______________________________ Date: _________________ 8th Grade US History FINAL EXAM THEMATIC REVIEW SHEET Unit II – America in the Progressive Era Complete the Following: Social Movement Women’s Rights/ Suffrage Movement Goals Influential Leaders Outcomes Civil Rights Movement (Pre-WWI) Workers’ Rights Movement Temperance Movement Essential Questions to Answer: 1. Choose two muckrakers from among the following: Jacob Riis, Ida Tarbell, Upton Sinclair, Ida Wells, Lincoln Steffens. For each, describe the problems they addressed and how they drew attention to them. 2. How did events such as the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire spur people to seek safer working conditions? 3. Describe the mechanisms of Direct Democracy created and used during the Progressive Era. 4. How was the Northern Securities Case a turning point in the government’s relationship with big business? 5. Describe in detail Roosevelt’s Square Deal program and Wilson’s New Freedom program. Square Deal New Freedom Unit III – The Rise of American Imperialism Complete the Following: Region Alaska Why the U.S. Desired It Key Events/Documents Concerning Imperialism in the Region Hawaii Cuba Puerto Rico Philippines Panama Essential Questions to Answer: 1. List and explain three major factors that contributed to Americans’ desire to become an imperialist nation. 2. How did yellow journalism contribute to the Americans’ decision to enter the Spanish-American War? 3. How and why did some Cubans and Filipinos resist US influences in their lands after the war’s end? 4. What was the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine? What policies did it put forth? 5. Why did the United States desire a canal in Panama, and how did the US go about acquiring it? 6. Define jingoism and explain how it grew in the US during the Age of Imperialism. What were its impacts? Unit IV – The United States and World War I Complete the Following: Cause of WWI What does it mean, and how did it contribute to the conflict? Militarism Alliances Nationalism Imperialism Assassination Essential Questions to Answer: 1. The Great War can arguably be viewed as the first modern war. Describe the new technologies put to use during the conflict and how they impacted the way battles were fought. What was the effect on soldiers’ morale? What was the cost? 2. Describe the impacts of the Lusitania Sinking, the Zimmermann Telegram, Unrestricted Submarine Warfare, and the Russian Revolution on the United States’ transformation from neutral party to major player in World War I. 3. During WWI, the US government tried to stop Americans from criticizing the war. Explain the reasons for limiting free speech during wartime. What laws were put in place to limit civil liberties and how were these laws used? 4. During WWI, the federal government stepped in and channeled the entire economy into war production; mention the various agencies and their function/responsibilities. Why did Americans agree to such sacrifice, and why did they allow the government to concentrate so much power? 5. Explain the impact of WWI on African-Americans and women. Identify how both groups were perceived; explain the contributions they made to the war effort. Examine how both groups may have benefited (even slightly) from WWI. 6. What was President Wilson motivation behind proposing the Fourteen Points? What were his hopes for the end of the war? Why was he ultimately unable to achieve his vision for peace? Unit V – The Roaring Twenties Essential Questions to Answer: 1. Why were Americans eager to “Return to Normalcy” after World War I? What did this “Return to Normalcy” look like? 2. What was the Harlem Renaissance and why is it historically significant? What were the movement’s goals? Who were some of its most important contributors, and what were their contributions? 3. Why did the Prohibition Amendment come into existence? What did Americans hope to achieve by creating it? What specific problems occurred as a result? 4. Describe speakeasies, flapper culture, and jazz, and explain the connection between them. 5. How did the Sacco and Vanzetti Trial illustrate the anti-immigrant, anti-communist, anti-anarchists fears of the 1920s? 6. How does the Scopes “Monkey” Trial illustrate the conflict between Traditionalism and Modernism that persisted in the United States throughout the 1920s. What sorts of people made up each side? What were some of the issues in question? 7. What new technologies came into existence (or became more readily available) in the 1920s? Why was each significant? 8. What were two positives of the culture of consumerism that came to exist in the 1920s? What were two negatives? 9. What were the Federal Government’s goals for business and the economy during the 1920s? How do scandals such as the Teapot Dome Scandal indicate the corruption present within this system? What risks were inherent within this system? Unit VI: The Great Depression and the New Deal Complete the Following: New Deal Programs What the Program was Intended to Do Significant Lasting Impacts Works Progress Administration (WPA) Fed. Deposit Insurance Corp. (FDIC) Social Security Administration (SSA) National Labor Relations [Wagner] Act (NLRA) Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Essential Questions to Answer: 1. Explain “buying on margin.” Why was it a risky purchasing strategy that contributed to the Stock Market Crash? 2. Aside from the stock market crash, list and explain three additional causes of the Great Depression. 3. How did Herbert Hoover attempt to stop the Great Depression? Why were his plans largely unsuccessful? 4. What was the Dust Bowl? What were its natural and man-made causes? How did it make recovery even more difficult? 5. Explain the role of confidence in the Great Depression. Why did FDR believe that restoring Americans’ confidence in the economy was essential? What strategies did he use for attempting to restore Americans’ confidence in the system? 6. Explain Roosevelt’s goals of relief, recovery, and reform. What did each refer to? Why was each needed? Relief – Recovery – Reform – 7. What were some of the primary criticisms of FDR and his New Deal policies? Who were his critics? How did the Court Packing Scandal contribute to fears of Roosevelt’s overextending his power? Unit VII: The United States and World War II Essential Questions to Answer: 1. Describe the conditions under which Hitler came to power in Germany. How did he appeal to the German people’s sense of national pride? What actions did he take towards returning Germany to its former strength? 2. Describe Germany’s policy of Lebensraum. What nations did it conquer (and why) in pursuit of this goal? How did the British and French respond? How did the Soviets respond? Were any of these responses effective? 3. How and why did Hitler and those he influenced seek to marginalize and then eventually dehumanize “non-Aryan” populations (especially Jews)? What was the Holocaust, what happened, and what was the end result? 4. What was the United States’ response to German aggression, and how did this response change from one of isolationism to combat? Likewise, why did the US create an embargo on the Japanese before the war, and how did the Japanese fire back? 5. How did life on the home front change for Americans during World War II? What sorts of things were citizens expected to do in the name of the war effort? Explain the treatment of Japanese Americans in particular. 6. How did the United States’ entry into World War II help turn the tide against Germany? How did Soviet efforts contribute to the Germans’ eventual defeat? Describe and explain key battles on the European theater. 7. Who participated in the Yalta Conference, what were the goals of each participant, and what tentative decisions were made about key issues such as the fate of Germany, Poland, and the rest of Europe after the war? 8. Describe the war on the Pacific theater, including the island hopping campaigns. Why did the United States government decide to pursue nuclear weapons? Why did President Truman drop the bomb on the Japanese? 9. What were the biggest long-term results of World War II? How did the world change? How did life in the US change? Unit VIII: Social History of the Cold War Complete the Following: Social Movement Goals/Beliefs Leaders/Events Outcomes Civil Rights Movement Anti-war Movement Beatniks/Hippies Women’s Rights/Gay Rights Essential Questions to Answer: 1. How did the GI Bill, Baby Boom and American auto industry transform U.S. politics, economy, society and landscape? 2. Explain how the fear of communism disrupted American political and social life following WWII. 3. Why was the launch of Sputnik a watershed moment in U.S. history? 4. Why did the Civil Rights Movement utilize non-violent civil disobedience? 5. Draw parallels between the Civil Rights Movement, women’s rights movement and the gay rights movement. 6. How did society and culture of the 1950s differ from that of the 1960s? 7. What was the logic behind the insistence a 26th Amendment be added to the U.S. Constitution? 8. How did the 1973 oil embargo damage the American auto industry? What are current problems faced by the industry? Unit IX: Political History of the Cold War Essential Questions to Answer: 1. How did ideology and the Yalta Conference play a role in the origins of the Cold War? 2. How did the Korean War differ from previous American attempts to contain communism? (Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, Berlin Airlift) 3. What were the reasons for the ultimate demise of the Soviet Union? 4. Support the following statement: “If it weren’t for the Vietnam War President Johnson would be regarded as a 60s version of FDR.” 5. Explain the relationship between the War Powers Resolution of 1973 and the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. 6. How did Watergate, the Iran Contra Affair and the Clinton Impeachment have an adverse reaction on the U.S. Presidency? 7. Why did the United States become involved in the 1990 Iraqi invasion of Kuwait?