Download Civil War 150 HistoryMobile Teachers` Guide

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Union (American Civil War) wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Fort Henry wikipedia, lookup

Ulysses S. Grant and the American Civil War wikipedia, lookup

Georgia in the American Civil War wikipedia, lookup

First Battle of Lexington wikipedia, lookup

Battle of New Bern wikipedia, lookup

Anaconda Plan wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Island Number Ten wikipedia, lookup

Mississippi in the American Civil War wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Malvern Hill wikipedia, lookup

Military history of African Americans in the American Civil War wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Perryville wikipedia, lookup

First Battle of Bull Run wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Roanoke Island wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Chancellorsville wikipedia, lookup

Second Battle of Bull Run wikipedia, lookup

Second Battle of Corinth wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Harpers Ferry wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Antietam wikipedia, lookup

Siege of Petersburg wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Stones River wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Cedar Creek wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Fredericksburg wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Namozine Church wikipedia, lookup

Battle of North Anna wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Gaines's Mill wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Seven Pines wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Virginia Sesquicentennial of the American Civil War Commission
Civil War 150 HistoryMobile
Teachers’ Guide
Inside the HistoryMobile
Principal Civil War Battles in Virginia
HistoryMobile Scavenger Hunt
Contents
Battlefront
SOL: VUS.7e
Homefront
SOLs: US1.9f, VUS.7e
Journey to Freedom
SOLs: VS.7c, USI.9f, VUS.7c
Did You Know?
SOLs: USI.9e, USI.9f, USII.3a, VUS.7e
What Would You Do?
SOLs: VS.7b, VS.7c, USI.9f, VUS.7e
Loss and Gain Portraits SOLs: VS.7b, VS.7c, USI.9d, USI.9f, VUS.7b
SOLs: VS.7b, VUS.7b
SOLs: VS.7c, USI.9f, VUS.7c, VUS.7e
Scavenger Hunt Answer Key
2
4
7
8
9
11
13
20
21
The Virginia Civil War 150 HistoryMobile, an interactive “museum on wheels,”
allows students to understand events related to the Civil War from different
points of view. The exhibit takes students through battlefront, homefront, and
the journey to freedom to explore the impact on Virginia of the Civil War, the
end of slavery, and the reunification of the nation.
The HistoryMobile is an initiative of the Virginia Sesquicentennial of
the American Civil War Commission, designed in partnership with the
Fredericksburg/Spotsylvania National Military Park and the Virginia Historical
Society. For the touring schedule or information on other programs related to
the Civil War and Emancipation in Virginia, visit www.VirginiaCivilWar.org.
This guide highlights the Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) covered in the HistoryMobile and provides information to
assist teachers in planning a visit to the HistoryMobile. For more classroom resources regarding the Civil War sesquicentennial,
please visit www.VirginiaCivilWar.org/teachers.
1
Battlefront
Related SOL: VUS.7e
VUS.7e: The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Civil War and Reconstruction Era and its importance as a major turning point in American
history by examining the social impact of the war on African Americans, the common soldier, and the home front with emphasis on Virginia.
Essential Knowledge
•
•
•
•
For the common soldier, warfare was brutal and camp life was lonely and boring. Many soldiers returned home wounded or crippled.
Warfare often involved hand-to-hand combat.
War time diaries and letters home record this harsh reality.
After the war, especially in the South, soldiers returned home to find destruction and poverty. Soldiers on both sides lived with permanent
disabilities.
Before Your Visit
As students enter the HistoryMobile, they will find themselves in an area depicting a Civil War battle. Tour guides
will introduce and begin the program, which immerses students
in a darkened, surround-sound environment. Students will hear
noises, such as soldiers shouting and gunfire to convey the chaos
of battle, followed by the reading of a soldier’s letter home.
After Your Visit
You can use primary sources (a skill demonstrated in SOLs VS.1a,
USI.1a, and VUSI.1a) and soldiers’ letters like the letter featured
in the HistoryMobile to provide insight into many aspects of
the war in Virginia—from camp, battle, siege, to life and death.
Private James Robert Montgomery of Mississippi wrote the
letter (transcribed below) in 1864 to his father after a battle in
Spotsylvania County, Virginia. Montgomery would die four days after he wrote the letter. You can also find more
letters like Montgomery’s on the Commission’s Teacher Resource page, www.VirginiaCivilWar.org/teachers.
Dear Father,
This is my last letter to you. . . . I have been struck by a piece of shell and my right shoulder is horribly mangled & I know death is inevitable.
I am very weak but I wrote to you because I know you would be delighted to read a word from your dying son. I know death is near, that I will
die far from home and friends of my early youth. . . .
My grave will be marked so that you may visit it if you wish to do so . . . I would like to rest in the graveyard with my dear mother and brothers
but it’s a matter of minor importance. . . . Give my love to all my friends. My strength fails me. My horse & my equipments will be left for you.
Again a long farewell to you. May we meet in heaven.
Your Dying Son,
J. R. Montgomery
Letter courtesy The Museum of the Confederacy Richmond, Virginia
For information on how you can take your students to the Museum of the Confederacy, refer to their Bring Your Class site (http://www.moc.org/
site/PageServer?pagename=edu_cl_main).
2
Front
Back
3
Homefront
Related SOLs: US1.9f, VUS.7e
US1.9f: The student will demonstrate knowledge of the causes, major events, and effects of the Civil War by describing the effects of war from the
perspectives of Union and Confederate soldiers (including black soldiers), women, and enslaved African Americans.
Essential Knowledge
•
•
Much of the South was devastated at the end of the war (e.g., burning of Atlanta and Richmond).
Women were left to run businesses in the North and farms and plantations in the South.
VUS.7e: The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Civil War and Reconstruction Era and its importance as a major turning point in American
history by examining the social impact of the war on African Americans, the common soldier, and the home front with emphasis on Virginia.
Essential Knowledge
•
•
•
On the home front, women were required to assume nontraditional roles.
Women managed homes and families with scarce resources.
Women often faced poverty and hunger.
Before Your Visit
After the battle scene, students will enter a room that portrays the homefront
during the Civil War. Students can investigate common materials used by
civilians as substitutions for scarce resources during the war, including:
• Charcoal, to clean teeth or polish silver
• Crackers, to make apple pie
• Green corn, to make artificial oysters
• Acorns, to make coffee
• Thorns, used as pins
• Persimmon seeds, used as buttons.
Sophia Downman’s Civil War letters represent one of the youngest
documented perspectives of the Civil War. Sophia, writing from Idlewild Mansion outside of Fredericksburg, Virginia, was
only eight years old when she wrote the letters to her cousin and aunt, describing the hardships of life in wartime. Idlewild saw
several skirmishes and even housed Robert E. Lee’s headquarters for a night in May 1863. Students will be asked to pick out
select phrases from the letters to further understand the implications of war on the homefront and for children. These phrases
are highlighted in the transcriptions on the following pages.
After Your Visit
You can use Sophia Downman’s letters in the classroom to reflect on students’
experiences in the HistoryMobile, reviewing the highlighted phrases to discuss
the related SOL points, or as a model to create their own Civil War letters.
Sophia Downman’s letters are transcribed in full in the following pages.
Students were asked to look for:
• The name of her rag doll
• How to make a hen lay eggs
• The name of her school teacher
• What she received as presents for Christmas
• The date of Sophia’s birthday.
4
Sophia Downman Letters
Dear Maggy,
Idlewild
July 1st [1862]
As I can write, I thought I would write to you. The Yankees behaved
very rudely; they broke open the meat house and took all the meat but four
pieces; they killed two of the cattle right before our eyes. You must write to
me and tell me about your school, and what you are studying. Give my love
to Emma and tell her she must write to me. I have a big rag baby; I can
undress her and dress her too. When you write to me you must tell me about
your hens and chickens. I have a hen setting. You and Emma must come to
see me. Give my love to cousin Salinia [?], and tell her she must come too.
Good bye, your affectionate cousin,
Sophy
Dear Mary,
Idlewild
Jan. 6th 1864
I thank you for the Christmas gift you sent me. I wish that you could
live out here. I have a hen house and Ma put two of her hens in it. When
I have some chickens I will send you a pullet, for a present. I have a big rag
baby, and I enjoy her very much; her name is Sally Rebecca. I wish we
had some thing better than cake and candy to send you. Give my love to cousin
Ginny and all; thank her for the bracelet she sent me. Aunt Betty sent
me a horn full of candy and a book: you must write me what you got
for your Christmas gift, for I would like to hear. I thought you were coming
out here to stay a little while. I hope you will come soon.
Good bye, your affectionate cousin,
Sophy
Dear Maggy,
Idlewild
[Jan. 1864]
I wish that I had a Christmas gift to send you, but things are so scarce
that I could not get any thing at all to send you. You must write to me for I
would be glad to get [a letter]. I have a hen and two hens. I have a big rag
baby and I enjoy her very much. I hope you will come up for I want to see you
so much. Give my love to Emma and tell her she must come up too. Monday
is my birthday and I am nine years old. I wish that I could come down to see
you. When Uncle Sample comes down I will send you a pullet for a present. I
will tell you how to make hens lay, get some oyster shells and
burn them and put it before the door of the hen house so
that they can eat it.
Good bye, your affectionate cousin,
Sophy
5
Sophia Downman Letters
Idlewild
Feb. 1st 1864
Dear Aunt Mona,
Today is my birthday and I am nine years old; though it is my birthday I am going to school because I want to be smart. Give
my love to cousin Sally and tell her she must come up and bring her little baby. You must write to me and tell me what it is named. I wish that
I had a hen to send you, but I have not any thing. I will tell you how to make hens lay; you must get some oyster shells and burn them, and put
them before the hen house so the hens can eat them. Give my love to Uncle Ben, and tell him he must come up with you and cousin Sally. Uncle
James has a little daughter and she is named after her Grandma. Give my love to cousin Courtney, tell her she must write to me and that she
must come up too, for I want to see you all; tell Etta she must come up with cousin Courtney. I wish very much that I could come down to see you
all, and I wish that you were here many times. I have a nice big rag baby, and her name is Sally Rebecca. I enjoy her very much; you must tell
Etta that I wish she was here, for we could play so nicely together. I like my school, and I think Miss Rebecca is a nice teacher.
I like to say my lessons to her. You must write to me and tell cousin Sally she must write too. Please ask cousin Courtney to send me some flower
seed, for the Yankees destroyed all that we had.
Good bye, your affectionate niece,
Sophy
6
Journey to Freedom
Related SOLs: VS.7c, USI.9f, VUS.7c
VS.7c: The student will demonstrate knowledge of the issues that divided our nation and led to the Civil War by describing the roles played by
whites, enslaved African Americans, and free African Americans, and American Indians.
Essential Knowledge
•
•
The Confederacy relied on enslaved African Americans to raise crops and provide labor for the army.
Many enslaved African Americans fled to the Union army as it approached and some fought for the Union.
USI.9f: The student will demonstrate knowledge of the causes, major events, and effects of the Civil War by describing the effects of war from the
perspectives of Union and Confederate soldiers (including black soldiers), women, and enslaved African Americans.
Essential Knowledge
•
•
The Union moved to enlist African American sailors and soldiers during the war.
African Americans fought in the Union army. Some African Americans accompanied Confederate units in the field.Women often faced poverty
and hunger.
VUS.7c: The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Civil War and Reconstruction Era and its importance as a major turning point in American
history by analyzing the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation and the principles outlined in Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address.
Essential Knowledge
•
•
The Emancipation Proclamation freed those slaves located in “rebelling” states (seceded Southern states) and made the destruction of slavery
a Northern war aim.
The Emancipation Proclamation discouraged any interference of foreign governments and allowed for the enlistment of African American
soldiers in the Union Army.
Before Your Visit
The third room of the HistoryMobile introduces the concept of slavery and
freedom. The proximity of the Union army brought opportunities for freedom.
Virginia’s enslaved people gained emancipation after the war, but also sometimes seized
the opportunity for freedom at great risk to themselves and their families. Inside the
HistoryMobile, students will hear Abraham and Hester Tuckson, an enslaved couple
who lived near Fredericksburg, discuss whether or not to escape to freedom.
Hester and Abraham Tuckson were married in December 1857 at Fall Hill Plantation.
Theirs was a slave marriage, lacking any legal standing or protection. Nevertheless, the
couple were able to remain together and raise a family before the Civil War. Hester and
Abraham had four children together.
Early in the war, likely in the spring of 1862, Abraham escaped from Fall Hill. Soon
after, he returned to the plantation, making an unsuccessful attempt to see Hester and
demanding his clothes from his former master, Dr. John Taylor.
Two years later, Abraham enlisted in the 23rd United States Colored Troops. He
passed near Hester and his family when his regiment marched near Fredericksburg in the Location of Fall Hill Plantation outside of
Fredericksburg
1864 Overland Campaign and engaged in battle at the Alrich Farm on May 15, 1864. Two
months later, on July 30, 1864, Abraham was killed at the Battle of the Crater without
seeing his family again.
Hester stayed on the plantation until the war’s end. She owned property and lived in Fredericksburg with her children after
the war, working as a washerwoman. In 1902, she moved to Washington, D.C., where she died on September 14, 1905.
After Your Visit
For more information on the Tucksons, you can visit the Mysteries and Conundrums Blog, written by historians at the
Fredericksburg/Spotsylvania National Park, at http://npsfrsp.wordpress.com/2011/01/17/slaves-at-fall-hill-abraham-andhester-tuckson/.
7
Did You Know?
Related SOLs: USI.9e, USI.9f, USII.3a, VUS.7e
While in the Homefront and Journey to Freedom rooms
students should be on the lookout for “Did You Know?”
facts relating to the SOLs. They are preceded by this symbol
Homefront
Did You Know?
Women and children on the home front often faced poverty
and hunger, and had few resources for clothes and food.
When two wounded Union soldiers were brought into her
hospital ward, 27-year-old Ada Bacot of Charlottesville,
admitted that “it will be hard to treat them as I do the other
men but I know it is my duty.”
85-year-old Judith Carter Henry refused to leave her home
and was mortally wounded during the First Battle of
Manassas.
Corresponding SOL
VUS.7e: Women managed homes and families with scarce
resources and often faced poverty and hunger.
VUS.7e: Women assumed new roles in agriculture, nursing,
and in war industries.
USI.9e: The first Battle of Manassas (Bull Run) was the first
major battle of the Civil War.
Slavery and Freedom
Did You Know?
Corresponding SOL
By the end of the war approximately 10% of Union
soldiers were African Americans.
The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution—
adopted in December 1865—abolished slavery in
the United States.
USI.9f: African Americans fought in the Union army.
USII.3a: Basic provisions of the 13th Amendment: Banned
slavery in the United States and any of its territories.
8
What Would You Do?
Related SOLs: VS.7b, VS.7c, USI.9f, VUS.7e
Before Your Visit
“What Would You Do” interactives give students a chance to consider decisions that faced Virginians during the Civil War that
would greatly impact their lives and the lives of others. The eight people featured in the interactives illustrate larger points that
can be connected to the SOLs. Each story is summarized and the choice each person made is listed below. The individual’s
decision is underlined.
1. Belle Boyd, Martinsburg, VA – In July of 1861, when Belle Boyd was seventeen years old, a Union soldier broke into her
home. Boyd shot and killed him. She was exonerated for the crime, but watched closely by Union soldiers. Nevertheless,
she found a way to help the Confederacy. If you were Belle Boyd, would you:
A. Remain in the Shenandoah Valley and conduct espionage for the South or
B. Disguise youself as a man and join the Confederate Army?
SOL: VUS.7e – Women assumed new roles in agriculture, nursing, and in war industries.
2. John Rogers Cooke, Leesburg, VA – Cooke was a lieutenant in the United States Army when Virginia seceded in 1861.
While his father was also in the U.S. Army, his brother-in-law, James Ewell Brown Stuart, left the U.S. Army to join the
Confederacy. With your family divided, would you:
A. Stay in the U.S. Army and fight for the Union or
B. Follow Virginia and join the Confederate forces?
SOL: USI.9f – Families and friends were often pitted against one another.
3. James Jackson, Alexandria, VA – At the beginning of the war, Jackson flew a large Confederate flag from his home in
Alexandria, the Marshall House. The flag was so large that Abraham Lincoln could see it across the Potomac River from
the White House. A Union colonel, Elmer Ellsworth, led men across the river to remove the Confederate flag and replace
it with a Union flag. If you were Jackson, when you saw Union soldiers entering your home, would you:
A. Confront the Union soldiers or
B. Let them remove the Confederate flag and replace it later, once they were gone?
When Jackson confronted Ellsworth and his men, he shot Ellsworth, and then one of Ellsworth’s men shot Jackson. Both
men died and became martyrs for their respective causes.
SOL: VS.7c – Most white Virginians supported the Confederacy.
9
4. Anne Gordon, Fredericksburg, VA – When the Union Army neared Fredericksburg in December of 1862, civilians were
ordered to evacuate the city, leaving their homes and belongings unprotected. At the time Gordon lived with her husband
and children. If you were Gordon, would you:
A. Obey the order and move to the countryside or
B. Remain in your house to protect your belongings?
SOL: VUS.7e – Women managed homes and families with scarce resources; especially in the South, soldiers returned home to find poverty and
destruction.
5. John Howard, Prince William County, VA – At the outset of the war,
Howard was the property of John Cannon. When Union soldiers came
to Cannon’s farm in March of 1862, every slave except for Howard, his
young niece, and his young nephew left the farm. If you were Howard,
would you:
A. Remain on the farm and take care of your master or
B. Seize the opportunity for freedom and leave the farm?
Like John Howard, an estimated 60% of Virginia slaves stayed on
plantations during the war.
SOL: VS.7c – The Confederacy relied on enslaved African Americans to raise crops
and provide labor for the army. Many enslaved African Americans fled to the Union army as it approached and some fought for the Union.
6. Elizabeth Van Lew, Richmond, VA – Before the war, Van Lew was educated in Philadelphia, where she developed
abolitionist sentiments. Back in Richmond, a city whose economy was very much influenced by slavery, Van Lew’s beliefs
put her in the minority. When the Civil War broke out, if you were Van Lew, would you:
A. Remain in town and funnel information to the Union or
B. Leave the city, move north, and organize to free the slaves?
Van Lew built an extensive Richmond spy ring for the Union. She was nicknamed “Babcock,” and Union general Ulysses
S. Grant said she sent him the most valuable information received from Richmond during the war.
SOL: VUS.7e – Women assumed new roles in agriculture, nursing, and in war industries.
7. Siah Carter, Shirley Plantation, Charles City County – When Union gunboats anchored nearby in the James River, many
enslaved people at Shirley Plantation were tempted to go to the boats and gain their freedom. If you were 22-year-old Siah
Carter, would you:
A. Take a chance and row out for the boats or
B. Remain on shore and await the arrival of the Union Army?
Carter rowed out to and enlisted with the USS Monitor. He served in the Union Navy for three years during the war.
SOL: USI.9f – The Union moved to enlist African American sailors and soldiers during the war.
8. George Gordon Meade, Petersburg, VA – Meade was in command of the Union Army of the Potomac during the Siege
of Petersburg. A plan was proposed to dig a tunnel underneath Confederate lines, plant explosives, and blow up a part of
the line. African American soldiers were trained to come through the tunnel after the explosion and fight the surprised
Confederate forces. But Meade was forced to re-evaluate this plan. If the risk did not pay off, and many African American
troops were killed, it would cause many political problems. If you were Meade, would you:
A. Send in specially trained black troops as planned or
B. Send in untrained white troops?
Fearing the political repercussions, Meade sent untrained troops into the Crater. Rather than move around the Crater, they
poured into it, becoming easy targets for Confederate soldiers. The battle was a Union loss and embarrassment.
SOL: USI.9f – African American soldiers were discriminated against and served in segregated units under the command of white officers.
After Your Visit
Use the stories of each historical character to exemplify applicable SOL points. Students can write essays explaining what they
would have done if they were one of these people and why. Students could also answer “What If ?” and predict what would
have happened if one of these individuals made a different decision. You can access the videos in the classroom at: http://
www.virginiacivilwar.org/historymobile_teachers.php.
10
Loss and Gain Portraits
Related SOLs: VS.7b, VS.7c, USI.9d, USI.9f, VUS.7b
Before Your Visit
The Civil War left many Virginians homeless, fatherless, or destitute. Many of
Virginia’s young men died in the struggle. While consolation for the hardships of
war came slowly, the Civil War brought freedom to Virginia. In the last room of the
HistoryMobile, students will be presented with 40 flip-panels that portray Virginians
who experienced either loss or gain due to the Civil War.
The Loss-Gain panels include a variety of perspectives, including Confederates,
Virginia Unionists, African Americans, Native Americans, and even animals. All
portraits are displayed in this guide on page 12.
After Your Visit
Consult this guide’s supplemental material, “Loss and Gain Portraits,” to access the
images and stories of each individual to use in your classroom. The following SOLs
are addressed:
Loss Portraits
Corresponding SOL
Gain Portraits
Corresponding SOL
VS.7c: Many enslaved African Americans fled to the Union
Private Lewis Martin, portrait 2
army as it approached and some fought for the Union.
USI.9d: Jefferson Davis was president of the Confederate
Varina Davis, portrait 3 (pictured with her husband, Jefferson States of America.
Davis)
VUS.7b: Jefferson Davis: U.S. Senator who became President
of the Confederate States of America.
USI.9d: Robert E. Lee was leader of the Army of Northern
Virginia.
VUS.7b: Robert E. Lee: Confederate general of the Army of
Mary Anna Randolph Custis Lee, portrait 8 (wife of Robert
Northern Virginia (Lee opposed secession, but did not believe
E. Lee)
the Union should be held together by force), who urged
Southerners to accept defeat and unite as Americans again,
when some Southerners wanted to fight on after Appomattox.
VS.7b: The first Battle of Bull Run (or Manassas) was the
first major clash of the Civil War. Confederate Thomas
Lieutenant General Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson, portrait 5 “Stonewall” Jackson played a major role in this battle.
USI.9d: Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson was a skilled
Confederate general from Virginia.
Sergeant Powhatan Beaty, portrait 3
VS.7c: Many enslaved African Americans fled to the Union
Sergeant William Harvey Carney, portrait 19
army as it approached and some fought for the Union.
VS.7c: Some free African Americans felt their limited rights
William H. Brisby, portrait 17
could best be protected by supporting the Confederacy.
VS.7c: Most American Indians did not take sides during the
Terrill Bradby, potrait 8
Civil War (though Bradby did).
USI.9f: Clara Barton, a Civil War nurse, created the American
Clara Barton, portrait 7
Red Cross.
11
Loss and Gain Portraits
Loss
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
1. Sergeant Major Cary Robinson
2. Private Lewis Martin
3. Varina Howell Davis
4. Appomattox home of Lucretia “Lula” McLean
5. George William Bagby
6. Unknown Soldiers
7. Charles King Mallory, Jr.
8. Mary Anna Randolph Custis Lee
9. Brigadier General William Lowther Jackson
10. Colonel Lewis Burwell Williams
11. Hetty Cary Pegram Martin
12. Horses and Mules
13. Flora Cooke Stuart
14. John Moncure Daniel
15. Jack the Bulldog
16. Brigadier General James Barbour Terrill
17. Edmund Ruffin
18. Ruined home of Susan Margaret Chancellor
19. James K. Boswell
20. Major General George Henry Thomas
Gain
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
12
1. John Mercer Langston
2. Major General William Mahone
3. Sergeant Powhatan Beaty
4. Rebecca Wright
5. Lieutenant General Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson
6. Major General Fitzhugh Lee
7. Clara Barton
8. Terrill Bradby
9. Maggie L. Walker
10. John Mitchell, Jr.
11. Private James Hanger
12. Sara Bagby
13. Antonia Ford Willard
14. Major Alexander T. Augusta
15. Booker T. Washington
16. Constance Cary Harrison
17. William H. Brisby
18. Lucy Goode Brooks
19. Sergeant William Harvey Carvey
20. Sergeant Major George Cary Eggleston
123 Principal Civil War Battles in Virginia
Related SOLs: VS.7b, VUS.7b
Source: Civil War Sites Advisory Commission Battle Summaries
Virginia sat at the geographic center of the Civil War. With
Washington, D.C., and Richmond only one hundred miles
apart, over one-third of the Civil War’s battles were fought in
Virginia.
10% of battlefields are preserved.
Students are encouraged to visit battlefields to better
understand the scope and magnitude of both the battle and
the Civil War overall.
Locations of key Civil War battles in Virginia
Battle
Date
Location
Sewell’s Point
May 18-19, 1861
Norfolk
Aquia Creek
May 29-June 1, 1861 Stafford County
Big Bethel
June 10, 1861
Hampton and York Count
Blackburn’s Ford
July 18, 1861
Prince William and Fairfax
Counties
First Manassas (First
Bull Run)
July 21, 1861
Prince William and Fairfax
Counties
Ball’s Bluff
October 21, 1861
Loudoun County
Dranesville
December 20, 1861
Fairfax County
Cockpit Point
January 3, 1862
Prince William County
Hampton Roads
March 8-9, 1862
Hampton Roads
Kernstown I
March 23, 1862
Frederick County and
Winchester
Yorktown
April 5-May 4, 1862
York County and Newport
News
Williamsburg
May 5, 1862
York County and
Williamsburg
Eltham’s Landing
May 7, 1862
New Kent County
13
Principle Commanders
Lt. D.L. Braine U.S.N. (US)
Brig. Gen. Walter Gwynn and
Capt. Peyton Colquitt (CS)
Cdr. James H. Ward (US)
Col. Daniel Ruggles (CS)
Brig. Gen. Ebenezer Pierce (US)
Col. John B. Magruder and
Col. D.H. Hill (CS)
Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell (US)
Brig. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard (CS)
Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell (US)
Brig. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston and
Brig. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard (CS)
Brig. Gen. Charles P. Stone and
Col. Edward Baker (US)
Brig. Gen. Nathan G. Evans (CS)
Brig. Gen. E.O.C. Ord (US)
Brig. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart (CS)
Lt. R.H. Wyman (US)
Brig. Gen. S.G. French (CS)
Lt. John Worden (US)
Capt. Franklin Buchanan and
Lt. Catesby R. Jones (CS)
Col. Nathan Kimball (US)
Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson (CS)
Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan (US)
Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder and
Gen. Joseph E. Johnston (CS)
Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan (US)
Maj. Gen. James Longstreet (CS)
Brig. Gen. William B. Franklin (US)
Maj. Gen. Gustavius W. Smith (CS)
McDowell
Drewry’s Bluff
Front Royal
Winchester I
Hanover Court House
Seven Pines
Cross Keys
Port Republic
Oak Grove
Beaver Dam Creek
Gaines’ Mill
Garnett’s & Golding’s
Farm
Savage’s Station
White Oak Swamp
Glendale
Malvern Hill
Cedar Mountain
Rappahannock
Station I
Manassas Station
Operations
Thoroughfare Gap
Second Manassas
(Second Bull Run)
Brig. Gen. Robert Milroy and
May 8, 1862
Highland County
Brig. Gen. Robert Schenck (US)
Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson (CS)
Cdr. John Rodgers (US)
Cdr. E. Farrand, Brig. Gen. William
May 15, 1862
Chesterfield County
Mahone, Capt. S. S. Lee, and
Lt. John Taylor Wood (CS)
Col. John R. Kenly (US)
May 23, 1862
Warren County
Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson (CS)
Frederick County and
Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks (US)
May 25, 1862
Winchester
Maj. Gen. T.J. Jackson (CS)
Brig. Gen. Fitz John Porter (US)
May 27, 1862
Hanover County
Brig. Gen. Lawrence O’B. Branch
(CS)
Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan (US)
May 31-June 1, 1862 Henrico County
Gen. Joseph E. Johnston and
Maj. Gen. G.W. Smith (CS)
Maj. Gen. John C. Frémont (US)
June 8, 1862
Rockingham County
Maj. Gen. Richard S. Ewell (CS)
Brig. Gen. Erastus Tyler (US)
June 9, 1862
Rockingham County
Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson (CS)
Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan (US)
June 25, 1862
Henrico County
Gen. Robert E. Lee (CS)
Brig. Gen. Fitz John Porter (US)
June 26, 1862
Hanover County
Gen. Robert E. Lee (CS)
Brig. Gen. Fitz John Porter (US)
June 27, 1862
Hanover County
Gen. Robert E. Lee (CS)
Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan (US)
June 27-28, 1862
Henrico County
Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder (CS)
Maj. Gen. Edwin Sumner (US)
June 29, 1862
Henrico County
Maj. Gen. John Magruder (CS)
Maj. Gen. William Franklin (US)
June 30, 1862
Henrico County
Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson (CS)
Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan (US)
June 30, 1862
Henrico County
Gen. Robert E. Lee (CS)
Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan (US)
July 1, 1862
Henrico County
Gen. Robert E. Lee (CS)
Maj. Gen. Nathaniel Banks (US)
August 9, 1862
Culpeper County
Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson (CS)
Culpeper and Fauquier
Maj. Gen. John Pope (US)
August 22-25, 1862
Counties
Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson (CS)
Brig. Gen. G.W. Taylor (US)
August 25-27, 1862 Prince William County
Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson (CS)
Fauquier and Prince William Brig. Gen. James Ricketts (US)
August 28, 1862
Counties
Lt. Gen. James Longstreet (CS)
Maj. Gen. John Pope (US)
August 28-30, 1862 Prince William County
Gen. Robert E. Lee and
Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson (CS)
14
Chantilly
September 1, 1862
Fairfax County
Fredericksburg I
December 11-15,
1862
Spotsylvania County and
Fredericksburg
Kelly’s Ford
March 17, 1863
Culpeper County
Suffolk/Norfleet House
April 13-15, 1863
Suffolk
Suffolk/Hill’s Point
April 11-May 4,
1863
Suffolk
Chancellorsville
April 30-May 8,
1863
Spotsylvania County
Fredericksburg II
May 3, 1863
Fredericksburg
Salem Church
May 3-4, 1863
Spotsylvania County
Brandy Station
June 9, 1863
Culpeper County
Winchester II
June 13-15, 1863
Frederick County and
Winchester
Aldie
June 17, 1863
Loudoun County
Middleberg
June 17-19, 1863
Loudoun County
Upperville
June 21, 1863
Loudoun County
Manassas Gap
July 23, 1863
Warren County
Auburn I
October 13, 1863
Fauquier County
Bristoe Station
October 14, 1863
Prince William County
Auburn II
October 14, 1863
Fauquier County
Buckland Mills
October 19, 1863
Fauquier County
Rappahannock
Station II
November 7, 1863
Fauquier and Culpeper
Counties
Mine Run
November 27December 2, 1863
Orange County
Morton’s Ford
February 6-7, 1864
Orange and Culpeper
Counties
Walkerton
March 2, 1864
King and Queen County
15
Maj. Gen. Philip Kearny and
Maj. Gen. Isaac Stevens (US)
Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson (CS)
Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside (US)
Gen. Robert E. Lee (CS)
Brig. Gen. William W. Averell (US)
Brig. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee (CS)
Brig. Gen. John Peck (US)
Lt. Gen. James Longstreet (CS)
Brig. Gen. John Peck (US)
Lt. Gen. James Longstreet (CS)
Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker (US)
Gen. Robert E. Lee and
Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson (CS)
Maj. Gen. John Sedgwick (US)
Maj. Gen. Jubal A. Early (CS)
Maj. Gen. John Sedgwick (US)
Gen. Robert E. Lee (CS)
Maj. Gen. Pleasonton (US)
Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart (CS)
Brig. Gen. Robert Milroy (US)
Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell (CS)
Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick (US)
Col. Thomas Munford (CS)
Brig. Gen. David M. Gregg (US)
Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart (CS)
Maj. Gen. Alfred Pleasonton (US)
Brig. Gen. Wade Hampton and
Brig. Gen. Beverly Robertson (CS)
Maj. Gen. William H. French (US)
Maj. Gen. Richard Anderson (CS)
Maj. Gen. William. H. French (US)
Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart (CS)
Maj. Gen. G.K. Warren (US)
Lt. Gen. A.P. Hill (CS)
Maj. Gen. G.K. Warren (US)
Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart (CS)
Maj. Gen. J. Kilpatrick (US)
Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart (CS)
Maj. Gen. George G. Meade (US)
Gen. Robert E. Lee (CS)
Maj. Gen. George G. Meade (US)
Gen. Robert E. Lee (CS)
Brig. Gen. J.C. Caldwell (US)
Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell (CS)
Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick and
Col. Ulric Dahlgren (US)
Maj. Gen. Wade Hampton (CS)
Wilderness
May 5-7, 1864
Spotsylvania County
Port Walthall Junction
May 6-7, 1864
Chesterfield County
Spotsylvania Court
House
May 8-21, 1864
Spotsylvania County
Cloyd’s Mountain
May 9, 1864
Pulaski County
Swift Creek
May 9, 1864
Chesterfield County
Cove Mountain
May 10, 1864
Wythe County
Chester Station
May 10, 1864
Chesterfield County
Yellow Tavern
May 11, 1864
Henrico County
Proctor’s Creek
May 12-16, 1864
Chesterfield County
New Market
May 15, 1864
Shenandoah County
Ware Bottom Church
May 20, 1864
Chesterfield County
North Anna
May 23-26, 1864
Caroline and
Hanover
Counties
Wilson’s Wharf
May 24, 1864
Charles City
Haw’s Shop
May 28, 1864
Hanover County
Totopotomoy Creek/
Bethesda Church
May 28-30, 1864
Hanover County
Old Church
May 30, 1864
Hanover County
Cold Harbor
May 31-June 12,
1864
Hanover County
Piedmont
June 5-6, 1864
Augusta County
Petersburg I
June 9, 1864
City of
Petersburg
Trevilian Station
June 11-12, 1864
Louisa County
Petersburg II
June 15-18, 1864
City of
Petersburg
16
Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and
Maj. Gen. George G. Meade (US)
Gen. Robert E. Lee (CS)
Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler (US)
Brig. Gen. Johnson Hagood (CS)
Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and
Maj. Gen. George G. Meade (US)
Gen. Robert E. Lee (CS)
Brig. Gen. George Crook (US)
Brig. Gen. Albert Jenkins (CS)
Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler (US)
Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard (CS)
Brig. Gen. William W. Averell (US)
Brig. Gen. William. E. Jones (CS)
Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler (US)
Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard (CS)
Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan (US)
Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart (CS)
Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler (US)
Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard (CS)
Maj. Gen. Franz Sigel (US)
Maj. Gen. John C. Breckinridge (CS)
Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler (US)
Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard (CS)
Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and
Maj. Gen. George G. Meade (US)
Gen. Robert E. Lee (CS)
Brig. Gen. Edward Wild (US)
Maj. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee (CS)
Brig. Gen. David M. Gregg (US)
Maj. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee and
Maj. Gen. Wade Hampton (CS)
Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and
Maj. Gen. George G. Meade (US)
Gen. Robert E. Lee (CS)
Brig. Gen. Alfred Torbert (US)
Brig. Gen. Matthew C. Butler (CS)
Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and
Maj. Gen. George G. Meade (US)
Gen. Robert E. Lee (CS)
Maj. Gen. David Hunter (US)
Brig. Gen. William E. Jones (CS)
Maj. Gen. Quincy Gillmore (US)
Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard (CS)
Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan (US)
Maj. Gen. Wade Hampton (CS)
Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and
Maj. Gen. George G. Meade (US)
Gen. Robert E. Lee and
Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard (CS)
Lynchburg
June 17-18, 1864
City of
Lynchburg
Jerusalem Plank Road
June 21-24, 1864
Dinwiddie County and
Petersburg
Saint Mary’s Church
June 24, 1864
Charles City
Staunton River Bridge
June 25, 1864
Halifax County and
Charlotte
Sappony Church
June 28, 1864
Sussex County
Ream’s Station I
June 29, 1864
Dinwiddie County
Cool Spring
July 17-18, 1864
Clarke County
Rutherford’s Farm
July 20, 1864
Kernstown II
July 24, 1864
Deep Bottom I
July 27-29, 1864
Henrico County
Crater
July 30, 1864
Petersburg
Deep Bottom II
August 13-20, 1864
Henrico County
Guard Hill
August 16, 1864
Warren County
Globe Tavern
August 18-21, 1864
Dinwiddie County
Ream’s Station II
August 25, 1864
Dinwiddie County
Berryville
September 3-4, 1864 Clarke County
Opequon
September 19, 1864
Frederick County
Fisher’s Hill
September 21-22,
1864
Shenandoah County
New Market Heights
(Chaffin’s Farm)
September 29-30,
1864
Henrico County
Frederick County and
Winchester
Frederick County and
Winchester
17
Maj. Gen. David Hunter (US)
Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early (CS)
Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and
Maj. Gen. George G. Meade (US)
Gen. Robert E. Lee (CS)
Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan (US)
Maj. Gen. Wade Hampton (CS)
Brig. Gen. James Wilson and
Brig. Gen. August Kautz (US)
Maj. Gen. William H.F. “Rooney” Lee
(CS)
Brig. Gen. James Wilson and
Brig. Gen. August Kautz (US)
Maj. Gen. Wade Hampton (CS)
Maj. Gen. James Wilson and
Brig. Gen. August Kautz (US)
Maj. Gen. William Mahone and
Maj. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee (CS)
Maj. Gen. Horatio Wright (US)
Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early (CS)
Brig. Gen. William W. Averell (US)
Maj. Gen. S.D. Ramseur (CS)
Brig. Gen. George Crook (US)
Lt. Gen. Jubal Early (CS)
Maj. Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock
(US)
Maj. Gen. Charles Field (CS)
Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside (US)
Gen. Robert E. Lee (CS)
Maj. Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock
(US)
Gen. Robert E. Lee and
Maj. Gen. Charles Field (CS)
Brig. Gen. Wesley Merritt (US)
Lt. Gen. Richard Anderson (CS)
Maj. Gen. G.K. Warren (US)
Gen. Robert E. Lee, Lt. Gen. A.P. Hill,
Maj. Gen. Henry Heth, and
Maj. Gen. William Mahone (CS)
Maj. Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock
(US)
Maj. Gen. Henry Heth (CS)
Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan (US)
Lt. Gen. Jubal Early (CS)
Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan (US)
Lt. Gen. Jubal Early (CS)
Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan (US)
Lt. Gen. Jubal Early (CS)
Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler (US)
Gen. Robert E. Lee and
Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell (CS)
Peebles’ Farm
September
30-October 2, 1864
Dinwiddie County
Saltville I
October 2, 1864
Smyth County
Darbytown and New
Market Roads
October 7, 1864
Henrico County
Tom’s Brook
October 9, 1864
Shenandoah County
Darbytown Road
October 13, 1864
Henrico County
Cedar Creek
October 19, 1864
Frederick, Shenandoah, and
Warren Counties
Boydton Plank Road
October 27-28, 1864 Dinwiddie County
Fair Oaks &
Darbytown Road
October 27-28, 1864 Henrico County
Marion
Saltville II
December 17-18,
1864
December 20-21,
1864
Smyth County
Smyth County
Hatcher’s Run
February 5-7, 1865
Dinwiddie County
Waynesboro
March 2, 1865
Augusta County
Fort Stedman
March 25, 1865
Petersburg
Lewis’ Farm
March 29, 1865
Dinwiddie County
Dinwiddie Court House
March 31, 1865
Dinwiddie County
White Oak Road
March 31, 1865
Dinwiddie County
Five Forks
April 1, 1865
Dinwiddie County
Petersburg III
April 2, 1865
City of
Petersburg
Sutherland’s Station
April 2, 1865
Dinwiddie County
18
Maj. Gen. George G. Meade,
Maj. Gen. John G. Parke, and
Maj. Gen. G.K. Warren (US)
Lt. Gen. A.P. Hill and
Maj. Gen. Wade Hampton (CS)
Brig. Gen. Stephen Burbridge (US)
Brig. Gen. Alfred E. Jackson (CS)
Brig. Gen. A. Kautz and
Maj. Gen. David Birney (US)
Gen. Robert E. Lee (CS)
Brig. Gen. Alfred Torbert (US)
Maj. Gen. Thomas Rosser (CS)
Maj. Gen. Alfred Terry (US)
Lt. Gen. Richard Anderson (CS)
Maj. Gen. Horatio Wright and
Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan (US)
Lt. Gen. Jubal Early (CS)
Maj. Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock
(US)
Maj. Gen. Henry Heth (CS)
Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler (US)
Lt. Gen. James Longstreet (CS)
Col. Maj. Gen. George Stoneman (US)
Maj. Gen. John C. Breckinridge (CS)
Col. Maj. Gen. George Stoneman (US)
Maj. Gen. John C. Breckinridge (CS)
Maj. Gen. A.A. Humphreys and
Maj. Gen. G.K. Warren (US)
Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon (CS)
Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan (US)
Lt. Gen. Jubal Early (CS)
Maj. Gen. John G. Parke (US)
Gen. Robert E. Lee and
Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon (CS)
Maj. Gen. G.K. Warren (US)
Maj. Gen. Bushrod R. Johnson (CS)
Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan (US)
Maj. Gen. George Pickett and
Maj. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee (CS)
Maj. Gen. G.K. Warren (US)
Gen. Robert E. Lee and
Lt. Gen. Richard H. Anderson (CS)
Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan (US)
Maj. Gen. George Pickett (CS)
Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant (US)
Gen. Robert E. Lee (CS)
Maj. Gen. Nelson A. Miles (US)
Maj. Gen. Henry Heth and
Maj. Gen. Cadmus Wilcox (CS)
Namozine Church
April 3, 1865
Amelia County
Amelia Springs
April 5, 1865
Amelia County
Rice’s Station
April 6, 1865
Prince Edward County
Sailor’s Creek
April 6, 1865
Amelia, Prince Edward, and
Nottoway
Counties
High Bridge
April 6-7, 1865
Prince Edward and
Cumberland Counties
Cumberland Church
April 7, 1865
Cumberland County
Appomattox Station
April 8, 1865
Appomattox County
Appomattox Court
House
April 9, 1865
Appomattox County
19
Maj. Gen. George A. Custer (US)
Maj. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee (CS)
Maj. Gen. George Crook (US)
Maj. Gen. Rosser and
Maj. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee (CS)
Maj. Gen. John Gibbon (US)
Lt. Gen. James Longstreet (CS)
Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan (US)
Lt. Gen. Richard Ewell and
Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon (CS)
April 6: Col. T. Read (US) and
Maj. Gen. Thomas Rosser (CS)
April 7: Maj. Gen. A.A. Humphreys
(US) and Maj. Gen. William Mahone
(CS)
Maj. Gen. A.A. Humphreys (US)
Gen. Robert E. Lee (CS)
Maj. Gen. George A. Custer (US)
Brig. Gen. Lindsay Walker (CS)
Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant (US)
Gen. Robert E. Lee (CS)
Civil War 150 HistoryMobile Scavenger Hunt
Name:Date:
Battlefront
1. Who was the young soldier who wrote the letter to his father?
2. What two things did he leave to his father?
Homefront
Women and childen on the homefront had to adapt when resources that are common today were scarce during the Civil War.
What did they use to make:
1. Apple pie?
2. Pins?
Sophia Downman was eight years old during the Civil War, and she described her life in her letters to her cousins and aunt.
Can you find the following items in her letters?
3. The name of her rag doll:
4. How to make a hen lay eggs:
5. The name of her school teacher:
6. What Christmas presents she received:
7. The date of Sophia’s birthday:
Journey to freedom
1. By the end of the war approximately % of Union soldiers were African Americans.
2. True or False? Slaves were considered property during the Civil War. (Circle one.)
In the Homefront and Journey to Freedom rooms, find a “What Would You Do?” screen and choose a person.
3. Whom did you choose?
4. What was the problem they faced and what did they choose to do? What would you have done if you were in their
situation? Why?
Loss, Gain, Legacy
Find the historical figures in these pictures. Who were they? Write one thing they did during the Civil War.
1. Name:2. Name:
During the war:During the war:
20
Civil War 150 HistoryMobile Scavenger Hunt
Answer Key
Battlefront
1. Who was the young soldier who wrote the letter to his father? James R. Montgomery (or J. R. Montgomery)
2. What two things did he leave to his father? His horse and equipment
Homefront
Women and childen on the homefront had to adapt when resources that are common today were scarce during the Civil War.
What did they use to make:
1. Apple pie? Crackers
2. Pins? Thorns
Sophia Downman was eight years old during the Civil War, and she described her life in her letters to her cousins and aunt.
Can you find the following items in her letters?
3. The name of her rag doll: Sally Rebecca
4. How to make a hen lay eggs: Burn oyster shells and put them at the door of the hen house so hens can eat it.
5. The name of her school teacher: Miss Rebecca
6. What Christmas presents she received: A bracelet, a horn full of candy, and a book
7. The date of Sophia’s birthday: February 1st
Journey to freedom
1. By the end of the war approximately 10% of Union soldiers were African Americans.
2. True or False? Slaves were considered property during the Civil War: True
In the Homefront and Journey to Freedom rooms, find a “What Would You Do?” screen and choose a person.
3. Whom did you choose? (See pages 9-10 of this guide for possible answers.)
4. What was the problem they faced and what did they choose to do? What would you have done if you were in their
situation? Why? (See pages 9-10 of this guide for possible answers.)
Loss, Gain, Legacy
Find the historical figures in these pictures. Who were they? Write one thing they did during the Civil War.
1. Name: Jack the dog2. Name: Clara Barton
During the war: Jack was a stray bulldog who went to war
with the 102nd Pennsylvania Infantry. He was captured at
Salem Church, VA and disappeared in Maryland.
During the war: As a nurse, she distributed supplies to
wounded Union soldiers, notably at the battle of
Cedar Mountain.
21