CH. 8- DNA and protein synthesis Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. What is not a difference between DNA and RNA? a. RNA is single stranded DNA is double stranded b. RNA contains a phosphate group DNA does not. c. RNA uses Uracil DNA uses Thymine. d. RNA uses ribose DNA uses deoxyribose. ____ 2. Which of the following is a nucleotide found in DNA? a. ribose + phosphate group + thymine b. ribose + phosphate group + uracil c. deoxyribose + phosphate group + uracil d. deoxyribose + phosphate group + cytosine ____ 3. DNA replication results in two DNA molecules, a. each with two new strands. b. one with two new strands and the other with two original strands. c. each with one new strand and one original strand. d. each with two original strands. ____ 4. During DNA replication, a DNA strand that has the bases CTAGGT produces a strand with the bases a. TCGAAC. b. GATCCA. c. AGCTTG. d. GAUCCA. ____ 5. What happens during the process of translation? a. Messenger RNA is made from DNA. b. The cell uses information from messenger RNA to produce proteins. c. Transfer RNA is made from messenger RNA. d. Copies of DNA molecules are made. ____ 6. How many codons are needed to specify three amino acids? a. 3 b. 6 c. 9 d. 12 ____ 7. What is produced during transcription? a. RNA molecule b. DNA molecule c. RNA polymerase d. protein ____ 8. During translation, the type of amino acid that is added to the growing protein (polypeptide chain) depends on the a. codon on the tRNA only. b. anticodon on the mRNA only. c. anticodon on the tRNA to which the amino acid is attached only. d. codon on the mRNA and the anticodon on the tRNA to which the amino acid is attached. ____ 9. Genes contain instructions for assembling a. purines. b. nucleosomes. c. proteins. d. pyrimidines. ____ 10. Which of the following are found in both DNA and RNA? a. ribose, phosphate groups, and adenine b. deoxyribose, phosphate groups, and guanine c. phosphate groups, guanine, and cytosine d. phosphate groups, guanine, and thymine ____ 11. DNA is copied during a process called a. replication. b. translation. c. transcription. d. transformation. ____ 12. Which of the following statements is false? a. Some genes code for enzymes. b. The instructions for making some proteins are not specified by genes. c. An organism’s proteins determine its genes. d. An organism’s genes determine its inherited traits. ____ 13. Why is it possible for an amino acid to be specified by more than one kind of codon? a. Some codons have the same sequence of nucleotides. b. There are 64 different kinds of codons but only 20 amino acids. c. Some codons do not specify an amino acid. d. The codon AUG codes for the amino acid methionine and serves as the “start” codon for protein synthesis. ____ 14. RNA contains the sugar a. ribose. b. deoxyribose. c. glucose. d. lactose. ____ 15. Unlike DNA, RNA contains a. adenine. b. uracil. c. phosphate groups. d. thymine. ____ 16. Which type(s) of RNA is(are) involved in protein synthesis? a. transfer RNA only b. messenger RNA only c. ribosomal RNA and transfer RNA only d. messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA ____ 17. Why is DNA important? a. It directs the production of proteins within organisms. b. It is a structural component of cell membranes. c. It directly increases the solubility of nutrients. d. It is the major component of cytoplasm. ____ 18. Which of the following statements best describes the effect of mutations in DNA? a. Mutations result in changes that have no consequences. b. Mutations result in changes that always have negative consequences. c. Mutations result in changes that always have positive consequences. d. Mutations result in changes that can be positive, be negative, or have no consequences. ____ 19. The genes in the chromosomes of living cells are made of which of the following? a. ADP c. DNA b. ATP d. RNA ____ 20. What is the coded material that migrates from a cell nucleus to a ribosome where a protein will be synthesized called? a. ribosomal RNA c. transfer RNA b. messenger RNA d. codon DNA ____ 21. DNA replicates by breaking the hydrogen bonds between its two strands. What happens next to each strand? a. Each strand grows to double its original length. b. Each strand serves as a template for synthesis of a new strand. c. Each strand winds back upon itself exactly two times. d. Each strand takes a spiral appearance that is twice as thick. ____ 22. Which of the following statements is not consistent with the structure of DNA? a. DNA is composed of two strands made up of nucleotides. b. Strands are held together by unbreakable chemical bonds. c. Strands are twisted into a helix. d. Adenine pairs with thymine and cytosine pairs with guanine. ____ 23. Which DNA strand below represents the complementary base sequence for the DNA strand shown above? c. a. b. d. ____ 24. Imagine a cell’s nucleus that has 16 chromosomes before mitosis. After mitosis, how many chromosomes will each new cell nucleus contain? a. 4 c. 16 b. 8 d. 32 ____ 25. Which of the following is involved in the production of proteins in your body? a. tRNA reads the three nucleotide code of mRNA. b. DNA strands separate and a complementary strand of mRNA is formed along one strand of the DNA. c. tRNA translates a codon sequence into an amino acid sequence. d. all of the above ____ 26. Can scientists take a gene from a firefly and put it into the cell of another organism to make that cell give off light? a. Yes, because firefly cells give off light. b. Yes, because organisms share common sequences of DNA. c. No, because genes function differently in the DNA of different organisms. d. No, because a cell with extra genes will die. Self-Quiz Questions ____ 27. The anticodon of a particular tRNA molecule is a. complementary to the corresponding mRNA codon. b. complementary to the corresponding triplet in rRNA. c. the part of tRNA that bonds to a specific amino acid. d. changeable, depending on the amino acid that attaches to the tRNA. e. catalytic, making the tRNA a ribozyme. Use the table of condons below to answer the following questions. ____ 28. Using the genetic code in the table, identify a 5' 3' sequence of nucleotides in the DNA template strand for an mRNA coding for the polypeptide sequence Phe-Pro-Lys. a. UUU-GGG-AAA b. GAA-CCC-CTT c. AAA-ACC-TTT d. CTT-CGG-GAA e. AAA-CCC-UUU ____ 29. Imagine a cell’s nucleus that has 16 chromosomes before meiosis. After meiosis, how many chromosomes will each new cell nucleus contain? a. 4 c. 16 b. 8 d. 32 Use the figure below to answer the following questions. ____ 30. A common ancestor for both species C and E could be at position number a. 1. b. 2. c. 3. d. 4. e. 5. ____ 31. Which species are extinct? a. A and E b. A and B c. C and D d. D and E e. cannot be determined from the information provided Other USING SCIENCE SKILLS Figure 11-1 32. Observing How are structures A and B in Figure 11-1 related? 33. Predicting What would happen to structure F in Figure 11-1 if structure C were deleted? 34. Observing Identify structure F in Figure 11-1. What does it specify? 35. Predicting In Figure 11-1, what effect would the deletion of structure C have on the process that occurs during step Y? For codon E what what would the three nucleotides be? Figure 11-2 36. Observing Identify structure X in Figure 11-2. 37. Observing What molecule’s structure is illustrated in Figure 11-2? 38. Inferring What are the dashed lines shown in Figure 11-2? How do they relate to the rules for base pairing? 39. Observing What is the twisting shape of the molecule in Figure 11-2 called?