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Transcript
Cleveland 9
Essential Question: How did the Ottoman Military
perform during WWI?
WORLD WAR I AND THE END OF THE
OTTOMAN ORDER
THE MIDDLE EAST IN THE WAR

Nov. 2, 1914 Ottomans enter the war on the side
of Germany.
Declared a Holy War by the Sultan
 Believed it would be a short war

 Involving
only Russia, Austria-Hungary and Germany
 Russia would be defeated and Ottomans would gain territory

Eastern Anatolia campaign
Led by Enver Pasha 1914-1915
 Reckless offensive that devastated the army and left it
open to counter attack by the Russians in 1915.
 Russians pushed Ottomans back
 The Ottomans settled into a defensive position until
1917.

THE MIDDLE EAST IN THE WAR

Gallipoli campaign February 1915
 What
were the British and French goals at Gallipoli?
• Offensive move by both France and Britain
• Objective was to open the Dardanelles and capture
Istanbul.
• Give allies access to Russia
• Cut Ottomans off from Germany.
 What
•
•
•
•
were the results of the Gallipoli?
Ottoman land artillery held off Allied naval attack
200,000 French and British soldiers landed
Mustafa Kemal and the Ottomans held off the attack.
Allies were forced to evacuate in January 1916.
http://www.travellinkturkey.com/images/marmara/gallipoli02.jpg
THE MIDDLE EAST IN THE WAR

Persian Gulf Campaign
 What
were the British and French goals for the
Persian Gulf Campaign?
• British wanted to secure India and gain access to the oil fields.
 What
were the results of the Persian Gulf
Campaign?
• 1914 British were successful and reached Bagdad.
• 1915 an Ottoman counter attack drove the British back
to Kut and forced a surrender in 1916.
• March 1917 British launched a second offensive
captured Bagdad and brought southern Iraq under
British control.
THE MIDDLE EAST IN THE WAR

Syrian Campaign

What were the goals of the Syrian Campaign?
• January 1915 Jamal Pasha led 80,000 to the Sinai Peninsula
in hopes of capturing the Suez Canal.
• The Ottomans almost captured the canal but were driven back.

After Jamal was unsuccessful he became suspicious
Arab leaders.
 He
deported large numbers to Anatolia
 He arrested Arab nobles for treason, tried them in military
tribunals.
 11 were hung in 1915 and 20 were shot in 1916 all of whom
were prominent Arabs.
 Jamal may have caused anti-CUP sentiments but any antiOttoman movements were suppressed.
THE MIDDLE EAST IN THE WAR


What were the results of the Syrian Campaign?
• British moved troops to Egypt and in 1917 under and
pushed into Palestine.
• In December 1917 the British took Jerusalem.
• In 1918 the Ottomans defenses stiffened..
October 31, 1918 the Ottomans signed the Armistice of
Mudros.



The Ottomans had been overstretched on too many fronts
The Ottoman army had 800,000 men in 1916 had only 100,000 in
1918.
After Russia withdrew in 1917 the Ottomans took back territory in the
Caucasus but with the collapse of the Central Powers the Ottomans
were forced to seek an armistice