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Diplomatic Etiquette First session Diplomatic Terminologies Presented by : Yadav Khanal Resource Person Institute of Foreign Affairs Meaning of Diplomatic terminologies As with other profession, diplomacy also is replete with specific terminologies and jargons. Such diplomatic terminologies and diplomatic jargons have been in use more commonly in diplomacy for long time. Also new terminologies and jargons have evolved and been evolving in line with the expansion of diplomatic functions as well as actors. Knowledge of such terminologies is essential for diplomats as well as for those who engage in diplomatic functions regularly or occasionally. Why do we need knowledge of diplomatic terminology ? Being Govt. official we all need to be aware of these terms Common language for diplomats/officials Codification in international laws and conventions Communication with desired effect Comprehension of new and emerging knowledge and initiatives in diplomacy and international relations. Courtesies and politeness Sparing ourselves from any diplomatic embarrassment Most common and useful terminologies Diplomatic positions and ranks: Ambassador Extraordinary plenipotentiary: possessing full power High Commissioner: for Commonwealth countries Head of Mission Deputy Head /Chief of Mission Deputy High Commissioner Chargé d’Affaires,a.i.(ad interim) Cont…Diplomatic positions and ranks: Chargé d’ Affaires e.p.(en pied) Minister Minister Counsellor Counsellor First Secretary Second Secretary Third Secretary Administrative Attaché Defense Attaché and other various types of Attachés Consul-General/Consul: Honorary Consul-General/Honorary Consul Ambassador-at-large Special envoy/Representative Diplomatic Protocol and Processes: Protocol: Refers to the ceremonial side of diplomacy such as diplomatic courtesy, etiquette and precedence. It also refers to an agreement/understading Calls: Meetings with leaders and officials eg. Courtesy call, farewell call etc. Call on : meeting Agrément: An approval granted by a receiving state to the proposed nomination of an ambassador of a sending state. Credentials (Letters of Credence): Letters given to an ambassador by his/her Head of State and addressed to the Head of State of his/her host country. Cont… Letters of Recall: Along with the letter of credence, an ambassador also present to the head of state of the host country during the credentials presentation ceremony Letters of Recall of his/her predecessor. Exequatur: A document issued to a consular officer by the host country government authorizing the officer to carry out his/her consular duties. Persona Non Grata (PNG): An individual who is unacceptable to or unwelcome by the host government. Precedence: Priority among ambassadors, consuls-general or consuls on ceremonial or formal occasions. Cross accreditation/ Concurrent Accreditation/Dual Accreditation: When a diplomatic mission based in one country is the concurrent representative to two or more countries. Cont… Exemption/Immunity: Exemption of foreign diplomatic agents or representatives from local tax and legal jurisdiction Diplomatic Corps: A group of foreign diplomats resident in a nation’s capital. Consular Corps: A group of consuls and consuls-general in a particular city. Dean of diplomatic corps: An ambassador who is the head of diplomatic corps. Normally, he/she is the person serving in that capacity the longest term. The dean represents the corps in collective dealings with host country officials on various matters of their mutual interests. Cont… Legal terminology: Accords: International agreements originally thought to be for lesser subjects than covered by treaties, but now really treaties by a different name Ratification: Following the negotiation of a treaty, ratification is the act by which a government formally commits Accession: The procedure by which a nation becomes a party to an agreement already in force between other nations Exchange of Notes: A common way of recording an agreement. The contents of the notes are, of course, agreed upon in advance by the two governments participating in the exchange Cont… Final Act (Acte Finale): A formal summary statement, drawn up at the conclusion of a conference Full Powers: A legal document which authorizes a diplomat to conduct special business on behalf of sending government Status Quo: Existing state of Affairs at a particular time RSVP: A French term that means - please reply Cont… Diplomatic Premises: Embassy High Commission Permanent Mission Consulate Consulate-General Honorary Consulate-General Chancery: The office where the head of mission and his staff work. Diplomatic Communication Effectiveness of diplomacy lies in effective communication Diplomatic communication is done between and among governments Third person note or Note verbal: Written formal Communication (begins with “…… presents its complements to…..and has the honor to request that…..” and ends with “… avails itself of this opportunity to renew to …… the assurances of its highest consideration”) First Person note : addressed to individual (begins with.. On behalf of the government of …… I have the honor… and ends with ….pls accept your Excellency the assurances of my highest consideration Symbolic communication Levels of Diplomatic communication; Head of State/Government, Foreign Minister, Officials, Diplomats etc. Purposes of diplomatic communication: exchange views, clarify own positions, probe intentions, make agreement, attempt to convince other governments, diplomatic bargaining, diplomatic lobby, make propaganda etc Cont… Types of Diplomatic communication: Diplomatic bag/pouch: Bag in which mail is sent to and from diplomatic/consular missions and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs . Communiqué/Joint Communiqué: A summary of statement issued following important bilateral or multilateral meetings. Joint Communiqué is often signed by both the parties. Aide Memoire: A written summary of the key points made by a diplomat in an official conversation. Literally, a document left with the other party to the conversation, either at the time of the conversation or subsequently, as an aid to memory. Cont… Demarché: A formal approach or intervention by a diplomat, making representations to another government. Normally indicates formally raising an issue with host country government, usually involving a specific request for some action or decision in connection with the issue Rapporteur: The official of a committee or subcommittee whose job is to prepare a summary report of its discussions and Negotiation (Secrecy is the soul of negotiation) Dean: Head of Diplomatic Core Cont… Diplomatic relations: Recognition: Commonly used in connection with the recognition by one state of the existence of another state Rapprochement: The establishment of improved relations between two countries Détente: An easing of tension between states Recall of Ambassador: Diplomacy Various forms of diplomacy: (Derived from the term Diploma. ) • Diplomacy is thinking twice before saying nothing • Diplomacy is the patriotic art of lying • Diplomacy is the art of knowing what not to say • Diplomacy is the first line of defense • Diplomacy is the art of negotiation and generally known as a skill for the management of relation between states. These arts are known in different terms and practices: Diplomacy : contd. Bilateral diplomacy Multilateral diplomacy New diplomacy Old diplomacy Summit diplomacy Regional diplomacy Sport diplomacy Economic diplomacy Trade diplomacy Diplomacy : Contd. Climate diplomacy Diaspora diplomacy Constituent diplomacy Cultural diplomacy Preventive diplomacy Diplomatic illness Thank You !