The Cult of Domesticity Get out journal and textbook ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS How have gender roles changed since the turn of the century (1890’s-1910’s)? Why is it important to understand the journey of women at this time? OBJECTIVES To understand gender roles To trace the changes in gender roles To make connections between immigrants, muckrakers, and women writers To explore minority writers THE 19TH CENTURY FAMILY Men could work, women could stay home No longer the need for all members to work, men had stable jobs Did not have to make what they needed to survive Nuclear family As opposed to extended family “The Sphere of Woman- 1850” THE CULT OF DOMESTICITY: OR THE “TRUE WOMANHOOD” Piety (Religiousness) Purity 1. 2. Being sexually pure stops “fallen woman” 3. Submissiveness 4. submit to fate, to duty, to God, and to men Domesticity Never leave home if at all possible RIGHTS OF WOMEN The right to love whom others scorn, The right to comfort and to mourn, The right to shed new joy on earth, The right to feel the soul's high worth, Such woman's rights a God will bless And crown their champions with success. SPHERES, SEXISM Creation of the “spheres” Men (outside world)= temptations, danger Women (home)= safe for delicate creatures REASONS MEN ARE BETTER THAN WOMEN: Women were generally physically smaller than men. Women had less stamina, fainted so much (because of tight clothing) Women menstruated, and were physically incapacitated each month. Seen as a monthly illness, insanity Women were more delicate and weak. Nervous system was finer and prone to fatigue, irritation. Also, “unpredictable nature” of female reproductive system. FEMINISM Susan B. Anthony and Jane Addams table discussion Major impact Definition/summary of feminism Defining, establishing, and defending equal political, economic, and social rights for women Advocate for rights and equality of women THE STORY OF AN HOUR HW: Kate Chopin The Story of an Hour (784-787) Answer the questions on the Cult of Domesticity PP (slide 17)…next slide What does Chopin mean when she described Mrs. Mallard as having ‘heart trouble’. Why is that important to the story? The setting of the story is very limited; it is confined to a room, staircase, and front door. How does this help express the themes of the story? What kind of relationship do the Mallards have? Is Brently Mallard unkind to Louise, or is there some other reason for her saying “free, free, free!” when she hears of his death? How does she feel about him? Mrs. Mallard is described as descending the stairs “like a goddess of Victory”. In what ways does she feel herself victorious? “When the doctors came they said she had died of heart disease-of joy that kills”. Explain the meaning of this. What view of marriage does the story present? Keep in mind the time period (1894). THE STORY OF AN HOUR Where is the story taking place? Evidence? SETTING REFLECTION Looking at the quotes being critical of her, what does it say about the value of women at the turn of the century? TABLE DISCUSSION How does The Story of an Hour capture the plight of women at the time period? Is this a feminist piece? REFLECTION How have gender roles changed since the turn of the century (1890-1910’s)? (From then to now) No change? Why not? What connections can you make between immigrants, muckrakers, and women writers at this time?