AKSUM UNIVERSTY AKSUM UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF
... Figure 1.Map of study area .................................................................................................................. 19
Figure 2.Sampling design .................................................................................................................... 21
Figure 3.T ...
The Rational Design of Relations Between Intergovernmental
... 2.1 Formalization
Formalization is a logical first dimension to classify IORs. After all, when it comes to the IGOs
themselves, formalization is a key variable distinguishing between formal IGOs, informal IGOs,
and decentralized cooperation (Vabulas and Snidal 2013). It therefore makes sense to clas ...
The Gender Matrix in Mary Wollstonecraft`s Letters
... texts (or writers) upon each other or to the practice of referencing several sources in a
given text. Leon Roudiez notes, however, that intertextuality "has been generally
misunderstood" (15). Kristeva's conceptualization ofintertextuality is a signifying (and
revolutionary) practice that entails "t ...
Towards a Feminine/Feminist/Female Discourse of Virginia Woolf
... struggles and developments of women; it changes with the progression of women’s
writing history from oppression through suppression to expression. According to
Woolf, “woman’s gift of making a world of her own wherever she happened to be” is
“purely feminine” (MD 114). The process is more important ...
this PDF file - University of Alberta Libraries
... system”(Cotterrell 2010:xi).2 Even feminist scholars have neglected his
theory of moral individualism relative to other aspects of his writings.
This paper aims to address this shortcoming.
While Durkheim’s concern with the development of individual freedom in modern society is undeniable, I argue t ...
Gender performativity in South African films with reference to Leon
... There appears to be very little written on comedy and gender, specifically in a South African
context. To the best of my knowledge, no other work has been done on what this study is
focused on and in this way, this study fills a gap and contributes to the understanding of gender
performativity in S ...
Sexist advertisement in the Nordic countries
... well. The public is well aware that they can contact the Centre for Gender Equality to
report advertisements. The Centre have noted that they receive many calls as soon as a
sexist advert has been published, whereupon the Centre can contact the company and
inform them that they may have broken the l ...
Towards Different Law and Public Policy
... or damaging stereotypes of women and men. In the Netherlands there is general acceptance
of the view that Article 5a of CEDAW offers an additional legal tool to combat discrimination
against women, when compared with national Dutch and European Community law that
prohibits discrimination on the grou ...
Gender Differences in Educational Outcomes. Study on the
... indicators of how a national education policy is working in terms of equity in comparison with
others, but usually are not able to provide an analysis of particular causal factors, or what
should or could be done to create a more equal gender system.
Margaret Sanger:Eugenics vs Feminism
... itself, appose to women.
Franks point out how Sanger’s terms dehumanized women’s reproductive systems, in
many cases comparing them to animals. Sanger used the phrases “defective stock” when
talking about “unfit” parents. Another common word that was used by Sanger to describe
human reproduction was ...
Gender justice and social norms – processes of change for
... girls’ agency in challenging discriminatory gender norms, and processes of resistance and backlash against
changing gender norms. While a comprehensive survey of relevant literature on all these areas is outside the
scope of this paper, it discusses key insights from different bodies of literature a ...
Gendered Voices in Children`s Television Advertising
... images as a source of meaning. These
gender images display appearances and
activities linked with gender. Based on
our cursory examination, it appears
that they also present an array of linguistic markers that bolster the more
visually obvious gender representations; some of these linguistic markers ...
“Ah, excuse me…I like your shirt”: An examination of compliment
... more ‘sexualised’ manner than females (Abbey 1987) have also grown popular,
most recently as an attempt to explain the motivations behind sexual harassment
(Johnson, Stockdale and Saal 1991). This paper examines both issues,
investigating compliment responses across gender with ...
On relevance of the peace culture concept in the study of ethnic
... non-violence along with sympathy for the weak represents the basic propensity of a culture of
peace, which will be discussed in this paper. Such propensity basically corresponds to Geert
Hofstede’s description of cultural femininity. In cultures with feminine traits men and women
enjoy equal treatme ...
Chapter 24 Gender Identity and Stereotyping in Early
... arms outstretched in fists. He imagines his muscles bulging and his strength abounding, running here
and there in an attempt to fly off to combat unseen evil forces.
What can explain these gender differences in behavior? There are many different possible explanations. Some might say girls and boys c ...
PLOTINA PLOTINA Working Lexicon
... The following lexicon includes concepts that are important to be defined for the
purposes of this project.
A number of different definitions were collected for each concept and presented
at the kick off meeting of the project. Partners and Advisory Board (AB) members
discussed the tabled definitions ...
Dora Šantić “Women`s Language”: Gender Identities and Language
... from an individual’s innate quality or a stable aspect of one’s identity. The first approach was
introduced by West and Zimmerman as “doing gender”. According to the approach, the
concept of gender implies a performance, an activity on the part of individuals that would
identify them as male or fema ...
Does it Cost Too Much? A `Difference` Look at J.E.B. v. Alabama
... fortunately, in following Batson without question, the J.E.B. Court
failed to recognize the distinction between race and gender z5
The Court in J.E.B. was faced with facts clearly indicating that the
individual juror's gender was the only factor the prosecution considered. 26 Many experienced attorn ...
Dead Broets Society: Masculinity in Walt Whitman`s War Verse
... I will admit that it has taken me a while to reach a conclusion to this question, and I still have
doubts about my reasoning. I am a lover of Whitman’s poetry, and I have always had a respect
for his daring display of his own homosexuality, but diving back into “Drum-Taps” and
subsequent research s ...
Similarly Situated?: The Evolution of Gender
... for the general welfare.
This justification of a gender distinction repeated Muller’s rational basis test. If
it were not completely unreasonable or
irrational for the government to see a difference between men and women, the Court
did not perceive an unconstitutional distinction. The state’s legisl ...
Collective Identity Formation and the International State
... Sullivan 1971, 851-52). This is a basis for feelings of
solidarity, community, and loyalty and thus for collective definitions of interest. Having such interests
does not mean that actors are irrational or no longer
calculate costs and benefits but, rather, that they do
so on a higher level of socia ...
morote traducciones - Instituto de la Mujer
... The basis of equal opportunities policy is to be found in Section 3 of the Constitution of the
Federal Republic of Germany, completed in 1994 by the commitment on the part of the
Lander to assume responsibilities and work actively to create true equality of opportunities
for women and men and combat ...
SB 33.3.sparey - Open Research Exeter
... outlines, largely been skewed by misperceptions about early modern humoral theory. Such misperceptions will be shown to have especially influenced readings of dramatic representations of adolescence, where studies
about the body of the “boy actor” have emphasized humoral constructions
of gender in a ...
Feminism (international relations)
Feminism is a broad term given to works of those scholars who have sought to bring gender concerns into the academic study of international politics.In terms of international relations (IR) theory it is important to understand that feminism is derived from the school of thought known as reflectionism. One of the most influential works in feminist IR is Cynthia Enloe's Bananas, Beaches and Bases (Pandora Press 1990). This text sought to chart the many different roles that women play in international politics - as plantation sector workers, diplomatic wives, sex workers on military bases etc. The important point of this work was to emphasize how, when looking at international politics from the perspective of women, one is forced to reconsider his or her personal assumptions regarding what international politics is 'all about'.However, it would be a mistake to think that feminist IR was solely a matter of identifying how many groups of women are positioned in the international political system. From its inception, feminist IR has always shown a strong concern with thinking about men and, in particular, masculinities. Indeed, many IR feminists argue that the discipline is inherently masculine in nature. For example, in her article ""Sex and Death in the Rational World of Defense Intellectuals"" Signs (1988), Carol Cohn claimed that a highly masculinised culture within the defense establishment contributed to the divorcing of war from human emotion.A feminist IR involves looking at how international politics affects and is affected by both men and women and also at how the core concepts that are employed within the discipline of IR (e.g. war, security, etc.) are themselves gendered. Feminist IR has not only concerned itself with the traditional focus of IR on states, wars, diplomacy and security, but feminist IR scholars have also emphasized the importance of looking at how gender shapes the current global political economy. In this sense, there is no clear cut division between feminists working in IR and those working in the area of International Political Economy (IPE).Feminist IR emerged largely from the late 1980s onwards. The end of the Cold War and the re-evaluation of traditional IR theory during the 1990s opened up a space for gendering International Relations. Because feminist IR is linked broadly to the critical project in IR, by and large most feminist scholarship has sought to problematise the politics of knowledge construction within the discipline - often by adopting methodologies of deconstructivism associated with postmodernism/poststructuralism. However, the growing influence of feminist and women-centric approaches within the international policy communities (for example at the World Bank and the United Nations) is more reflective of the liberal feminist emphasis on equality of opportunity for women.In regards to feminism in International Relations, some of the founding feminist IR scholars refer to using a ""feminist consciousness"" when looking at gender issues in politics. In Cynthia Enloe’s article “Gender is not enough: the need for a feminist consciousness”, Enloe explains how International Relations needs to include masculinity in the discussion on war, while also giving attention to the issues surrounding women and girls. In order to do so, Enloe urges International Relations scholars to look at issues with a ‘feminist consciousness’, which will ultimately include a perspective sensitive to masculinities and femininities. In this way, the feminist consciousness, together with a gendered lens, allows for IR academics to discuss International Politics with a deeper appreciation and understanding of issues pertaining to gender around the world.Enloe argues how the IR discipline continues to lack serious analysis of the experiences, actions and ideas of girls and women in the international arena, and how this ultimately excludes them from the discussion in IR. For instance, Enloe explains Carol Cohn’s experience using a feminist consciousness while participating in the drafting of a document that outlines the actions taken in negotiating ceasefires, peace agreements and new constitutions. During this event, those involved came up with the word “combatant” to describe those in need during these usually high-strung negotiations. The use of ‘combatant’ in this context is particularly problematic as Carol points out, because it implies one type of militarized people, generally men carrying guns, and excludes the women and girls deployed as porters, cooks and forced ‘wives’ of male combatants. This term effectively renders the needs of these women invisible, and excludes them from the particularly critical IR conversation regarding who needs what in war and peace. This discussion is crucial for the analysis of how various masculinities are at play in International Politics, and how those masculinities affect women and girls during wartime and peace and initially eliminates them from the discussion.Conversely, feminist IR scholar Charlotte Hooper effectively applies a feminist consciousness when considering how “IR disciplines men as much as men shape IR”. So, instead of focusing on what and whom IR excludes from the conversation, Hooper focuses on how masculine identities are perpetuated and ultimately are the products of the practice of IR. In this way, it is ineffective to use a gendered lens and feminist consciousness to analyze the exclusion of a discussion in gender in IR. Hooper suggests that a deeper examination of the ontological and epistemological ways in which IR has been inherently a masculine discipline is needed. The innate masculinity of IR is because men compose the vast majority of modern IR scholars, and their masculine identities have been socially constructed over time through various political progressions. For instance, Hooper gives examples of the historical and political developments of masculinities that are still prevalent in IR and society at large; the Greek citizen/warrior model, the Judeo Christian model and the Protestant bourgeois rationalist model. These track the masculine identities throughout history, where manliness is measured in militarism and citizenship, ownership and authority of the fathers, and finally, competitive individualism and reason. These masculinities in turn asks one to not only use the feminist consciousness to analyze the exclusions of femininities from IR, but additionally, Hooper illuminates how one can locate the inherent inclusions of masculinities in the field of IR with a feminist consciousness.