Download Ectodermal Derivtives2008-11-18 02:441.6 MB

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Photoreceptor cell wikipedia, lookup

Embryonic stem cell wikipedia, lookup

Drosophila embryogenesis wikipedia, lookup

Neuroanatomy wikipedia, lookup

Nerve guidance conduit wikipedia, lookup

Nervous system wikipedia, lookup

Human embryogenesis wikipedia, lookup

Development of the nervous system wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Intraembryonic Mesoderm

Origin: The epiblastic cells
from the primitive streak
(groove)
 The newly formed cells
migrate ventrally, laterally &
cranially between the epiblast
and hypoblast
 At the margins of the
embryonic disc, the
intraembryonic mesoderm
merges with the extraembryonic mesoderm
By the end of 3rd week,
mesoderm lies between
embryonic ectoderm and
endoderm everywhere,
EXCEPT in the region of:
 Buccopharyngeal membrane
(fused prechordal plate +
ectoderm)
 Cloacal membrane, as the
embryonic ectoderm &
endoderm are fused at these
regions

Notochord
 Notochord
is a rod of
mesenchymal cells
 located in the
midline
 extending cranially
from the primitive
node to the
buccopharyngeal
membrane
Formation of Notochord

Origin: Primitive node/pit
 Like the primitive streak, the
primitive pit cells proliferate
and then migrate cranially in
the midline, toward the
buccopharyngeal membrane,
and form a rod like
notochordal process
 The notochordal process
becomes canalized forming a
hollow tube, the notochordal
canal, which communicates
with the amniotic cavity at
the primitive pit.
Formation of Notochord cont’d

The floor of the tube
and the underlying
endoderm fuse and then
break down, forming a
notochordal plate
 The notochordal plate
becomes continuous
with the endodermal
layer.
Formation of Notochord cont’d
A
temporary
communication is
established
between the
amniotic cavity
and the yolk sac,
termed the
neurenteric canal.
Notochordal plate folds to form the notochord,
which gets separated from the underlying
endoderm.
Functions of Notochord

Defines primordial axis of the embryo
 Provides rigidity to the embryo
 Serves as a basis for the development of the axial
skeleton
 Indicates the future site of the vertebral
bodies/column
 Regulates differentiation of surrounding
structures including the overlying ectoderm and
the mesoderm

DegeneratesFate
and of Notochord
disappears as the bodies of
the vertebrae develop
 The part that lies between
the vertebral bodies
persists as the nucleus
pulposus of each
intervertebral disc
 Remnants of notochordal
tissue give rise to tumors
called Chordomas
Differentiation of the
Intraembryonic Mesoderm
 Induced
by the
notochord
 Differentiates into the:
 Paraxial mesoderm
 Intermediate cell
mass
 Lateral plate
mesoderm
Ectodermal Derivatives
Dr. Zeenat Zaidi
The Neurulation

It is the process by which the neural tube is
formed. The stages of neurulation include the
formation of:
Neural plate
 Neural groove
 Neural folds & their fusion
 Neural crest cells
 Neural tube

Begins during early part of the 4th week (22-23
days)
 Ends by the end of 4th week (27 days)
 Is induced by the notochord

The Neurulation

Under the
inducing effect of
the developing
notochord, the
overlying
ectodermal cells
thickens to form
the neural plate

The neural plate first
appears:
 Cranial to the
primitive node and
 Dorsal to the
developing
notochord & the
mesoderm adjacent
to it

As the notochord forms &
elongates:
 The embryonic disc
elongates and becomes
club-shaped
 The neural plate broadens
and extends cranially as
far as the
buccopharyngeal
membrane, and later on
grows beyond it
Neural fold

On 18th day: the neural
plate invaginates to
form neural groove &
neural folds

Some neuroectodermal cells along the
crest of the neural fold differentiate as the
neural crest cells.
Neural crest cells
Neural fold

By the end of 3rd week,
the neural folds move
to the midline and fuse
to form the neural tube

The fusion begins in
the future cervical
region and then
extends both in cranial
and caudal direction
 Following
fusion of
the neural folds, the
neural crest cells
get separated and
move laterally to
form the sensory
neurons of the
spinal (dorsal root)
ganglia
 The
neural tube separates from the surface
ectoderm, lies in the midline, dorsal to the
notochord
 Neural
tube is open
at both ends,
communicating
freely with the
amniotic cavity.
 The cranial opening,
the rostral neuropore
closes at about 25th
day & the caudal
neuropore closes at
about the 27th day
cranial ⅓ of the
neural tube represent
the future brain
 The caudal ⅔
represents the future
spinal cord
 The
Congenital Anomalies of the Nervous
System
•
•
•
Disturbance of neurulation may result in severe
abnormalities of the brain and the spinal cord
Most defects are the result of non-closure or
defective closure of the neural tube:
• In the brain region (e.g. anencephaly)
• In the spinal cord regions (e.g. spina
bifida)
High level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the
amniotic fluid is a strong sign of neural tube
defects
Ectoderm
Surface ectoderm
 Neuroectoderm

Surface Ectoderm Derivatives









Epidermis of the skin
Hair
Nail
Sweat & Sebaceous glands
Mammary glands
Enamel of the teeth
Lens of eye
Internal ear
Anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
Neuroectoderm
 Neural
Tube
 Neural Crest Cells
Neural Tube Derivatives
Central nervous system
 Peripheral nervous system
 Retina
 Sensory epithelia of nose & ear
 Pineal gland
 Posterior lobe of the pituitary gland

Neural Crest Cells Derivatives








Sensory ganglia (cranial & spinal)
Autonomic ganglia
Meninges (Pia mater & Arachnoid mater) of
the brain & spinal cord
Schwann cells
Satellite cells
Melanoblasts
Suprarenal medulla (chromaffin cells)
Several skeletal & muscular components in
the head (derived from pharyngeal arches)