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The Egyptian Empire
World History E Hour
The Middle Kingdom 2080- 1640 BC
During the Middle Kingdom the Egyptians lived
in farming villages. In 3200 B.C. the villages
were under two separate kingdoms, lower and
upper Egypt. The king of the lower part of
egypt wore a red crown while the other one
wore white. Narmer , who is the king of the
lower part of Egypt created a white and red
crown. The crown symbolized the United
Kingdom . The kingdom consists of 31 dynasties
spanning over 2,600 years.
Hyksos Rule (1640-1570 B.C.)
After the success of the
Middle Kingdom, Egypt
became very violent
and had many wars due
to weak pharaohs who
could not control their
empire. Egypt became
very vulnerable and
they soon were
attacked and
conquered by invaders,
the Hyksos. The reason
the Hyksos were able
to conquer Egypt was
because the Hyksos
had a powerful weapon
the Egyptians did not,
Hebrews come to Egypt
In 1650 B.C the Hebrews migrated
from Mesopotamia to Egypt. They
migrated because the Nile River was
rich in water and minerals in the
soil. It also provided great military
power. They Hyksos told the
Hebrews they were able to stay and
join the Empire.
Around 1600, a series of warlike
rulers began to restore egypt’s
power. Queen Ahhotep took over
when her husband, who was also her
brother, was killed in battle.
Restoring Egypt’s Power
Another important ruler was
Pharaoh Kamose. He won battles
against the Hyksos. Pharaohs
after him continued to battle the
Hyksos and they managed to
completely drive the Hyksos out
of Egypt.
The Hebrew Exodus
Around the time period of 1600 B.C. the
Hebrews were enslaved by the Pharaoh
Kamose. They were forced to work hard
and long hours to rebuild Egypt. The
Hebrews were not let out of slavery until
the time period of 1500 and 1200 B.C.
They were set free with the help of a man
named Moses, he convinced the pharaoh
to let them go after a series of strange
The New Kingdom Of Egypt (1570-1075 B.C)
The pharaohs had overthrown
the Hyksos and wanted to make
Egypt an empire. The pharaohs
created large militaries and an
extensive government. During
this time some of the most
familiar pharaohs ruled such as
Ramses, Thutmose, and
Akhenaten. Art, architecture,
and religion stamped the New
1570-1360, The 18th Dynasty
Many of the Pharaohs from the New Kingdom were from
the 18th Dynasty. The 18th dynasty started with King
Ahmose, who defeated the Hyksos, and put Egypt back
under the rule of one egyptian ruler. After the Egyptians
had gotten rid of the Hyksos the Egyptian rulers were
determined to keep control of Egypt. In order to achieve
this goal they strengthened their military forces. They
gathered many soldiers and trained them to keep away
foreigners. The Egyptian rulers also formed more
advanced weapons for their soldiers to use in battle. With
these new strategies the Egyptians were sure to keep
away foreigners plotting to take over.
Hatshepsut's Rule
In 1472, Hatshepsut declared herself
pharaoh of the New Kingdom because
her stepson (Thutmose III) was to young
to take the throne. Unlike other
Pharaohs she encouraged trade instead
of war. She sent a fleet of five ships to
Punt to bring back items for religious
ceremonies. They returned with gold,
ivory, and unusual plants and animals.
Thutmose’s Reign
During his time of ruling Thutmose was tested when his father died. Enemy rulers thought it would be a great chance to test his
skills as a leader and they thought he would be weak, but he proved them wrong.
He was already the ruler of the military before he took the throne and knew the strengths of his army. He wanted to
defend more than Egypt so he he planned ahead and trained 20,000 soldiers who volunteered or by force if necessary, for a
surprise attack on Megiddo. He went against the General’s advice and took the most dangerous route into the city however, he
quickly defeated the other army.
They weren’t prepared and the city now belonged to Thutmose;then he sent the enemies children back to Egypt as
“brainwashed” citizens. He was known for reversing Egypt’s distinction and he accomplished way more than any other empire
ruled by one king.
1900 BC-Hittites Move Into Asia
Long ago while Egypt was becoming
established a group of people called
the Hittites created one of the first
major civilizations. When the
civilization was at its best it
conquered many places. One of
these places was Asia Minor. A while
after because of the location the
Hittites fought with the Egyptians.
The Battle of Kadesh
Kadesh was known as Qadesh, which was an ancient
city of the Levant, on the bank of the Orontes River
in Syria where the battle was fought between the
Pharaoh Ramesses II and the Hittite king,
Muwatallis.The battle occured around 1285 B.C.
Ramesses II led an army of 20,000 men. Muwatallis
had set out a trap for the Egyptians. He sent forth
about about 1,500 chariots, each holding three men
to test the strength of the Egyptians armies, both
armies were powerful and massive. Ramesses
claimed his army fled leaving him, but both parties
claimed that Kadesh was their on victory.
Ramesses failed to complete his objective of taking
city, but he did break the Hittite army, and Hittites
did retain control of Kadesh, but he didn't crush
Ramesses’ army.
This battle is considered a draw in history because
neither side gained their objective . They figured
that neither could defeat the other so they agreed
to choose the way of peace.
This lead to the PeaceTreaty which was created by
Pharaoh Ramesesses and The Hittie King which
promised peace and brotherhood .
"Reamasesa, the great king, the king of the country
of Egypt, shall never attack the country of Hatti to
take possession of a part (of this country). And
Hattusili, the great king, the king of the country of
Hatti, shall never attack the country of Egypt to
take possession of a part (of that country)”.
(Hattusili III)
After the battle at Kadesh and the peace treaty was signed, the Egyptians and the Hittites were
realatively peaceful. Although they slowly came apart as other strong civilizations rose to
challenge Egypts power.
950-730 Libyan Pharaohs Rule Egypt
Egypt’s Empire Fades
*Egypt didn’t recover from previous invasions
- the empire broke into regional units where small kingdoms
*Almost powerless Egypt fell to neighbor’s invasions
-Libyans crossed the desert to the Nile Delta
-There they established independent dynasties
* Libyans ruled from 950-730 BC, erecting their own cities
-they did not impose their own culture, but adopted to the
Egyptian’s culture instead
*Even when the Nubians seized power, they too adopted their
Piankhi Captures Egyptian Throne
In 751 B.C. Piankhi, the Kushite king, overthrew
the Libyan dynasty. He united the Nile Valley from the
North, to Napata in the South. After the victory,
Piankhi had a statue created and inscribed with words
that celebrated the victory.
Piankhi and his descendents (called Kushites)
became Egypt’s 25th dynasty, but in 671 B.C, the
Assyrians conquered them. After being conquered,
the Kushites moved south along the Nile River.
Our Sources:
Slide 1 world history textbook
Slide 2: World History Textbook
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Our Sources:
Slide 6 World History Text Book
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Slide8 textbook,
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Slide 10 textbook, google images
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Slide 15- Text book (11th Grade World History ‘Patterns of Interaction’) Pages 90-92
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