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Anatomy and Physiology The Respiratory System BREATHING • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zRv5t NCMpyY • The Respiratory System is the system that takes in O2 from the environment and exchanges it for CO2. • In addition, this system traps particles from the air (that came in with the O2), control temperature and water loss, produce vocal sounds and aid in smell and maintaining blood pH. http://imagecache2.allposters.com/images/pic/JAG/03-PS1211~Respiratory-System-Posters.jpg • The Organs of the Respiratory System: nose, nasal cavity, sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, and lungs. http://www.google.com/imgres The Nose: • this contains 2 nostrils or nares (openings), bone and cartilage, & internal hairs. • Its function is for air exchange and trapping of particles from the air http://www.web-books.com/elibrary/medicine/Physiology/Respiratory/nose.jpg The Nasal Cavity: • This is the opening (hollow space) behind the nose. • It is divided into 2 parts by the nasal septum (bone). • It also contains passageways divided by nasal conchae (lobes) http://www.google.com/imgres The Nasal Cavity: • It is lined by mucous membranes which has cilia & BVs – The mucus traps particles – The cilia provide sweeping movements that direct the air & particles – The BVs warm incoming air into the body (adjusting it to the body’s temp) The Paranasal Sinuses: • are air-filled spaces in the skull bones (specifically, frontal, maxillary, ethmoid, & sphenoid) • are lined with mucous membranes • affect the sound quality of the voice • a sinus headache is (not only painful but) a blocked sinus (it cannot drain properly). This can be caused by allergies or infection. Paranasal Sinuses: http://academic.kellogg.cc.mi.us/herbrandsonc/bio201_McKinley/f25-3_paranasal_sinuses_c.jpg The Pharynx: • a.k.a. throat • passageway for both food (leading to esophagus) and air (leading to larynx) • aids in sound production http://www.google.com/imgres The Larynx: • a small passageway that connects the pharynx to the trachea • allows air to pass through, preventing particles from entering the trachea • houses the vocal cords • composed of muscle and cartilage: – thyroid cartilage (a.k.a. Adam’s apple): largest of these; found in the mid-section of the larynx. Do women have Adam’s apples? – epiglottic cartilage: found at the top of the larynx; supports the epiglottis (a flaplike structure that allows air to pass through the trachea but prevents food & liquids to enter) http://www.yorku.ca/earmstro/journey/images/larynx.gif The Trachea: • a.k.a. windpipe • the tube in front of the esophagus • splits into the left and right bronchi • contains a ciliated mucoid lining which filters air particles and transports air down into the bronchial tree • the wall is lined with C-shaped hyaline cartilage that hold the tube open while the opening of the “C” is supported with muscle which is movable. This allows room for the esophagus to expand when swallowing. http://www.medicalook.com/systems_images/trachea.jpg The Bronchial Tree: • branched airways (left & right) that come from the trachea • these are supported by cartilage until they get smaller & smaller in size (the amount of cartilage decreases with the decrease in size) • these provide the passageway of air into the lungs http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/thumb/c/ cf/300px-3DScience_respiratory_labeled.jpg From largest (and the trachea) to the lungs: • Bronchi move air into bronchioles. • Bronchioles move air into alveolar ducts then to alveolar sacs then finally alveoli • Alveoli are where gas exchange takes place; capillaries (a capillary net) are in close contact with these, allowing gases to enter and exit the bloodstream. • Gas exchange occurs here via diffusion. http://www.greenfacts.org/images/glossary/bronchi-bronchioles-alveoli.jpg The Lungs: • these are soft spongy organs that are found within the thoracic cavity • they are enclosed & protected by the ribs and sternum and separated by the mediastinum • they contain: air passages, alveoli, BVs, connective tissue, lymphatic tissue & nerves • the right lung contains 3 lobes while the left lobe contains 2 lobes. • Each lobe is supplied by a branch of the bronchial tree • Each lung is covered by: – Visceral pleura: serous membrane that follows the shape of the lung – Parietal pleura: serous membrane that covers the visceral pleura – Pleural cavity: potential space in between these; contains small amount of serous fluid to reduce friction during breathing http://www.fractal.org/Fractal-Research-andProducts/Dissecting-Fractals_bestanden/dissecting_lungs.jpeg Respiratory Physiology • Cellular respiration is the use of O2 by cells (and release of CO2); this is how we produce ATP from food. • Respiration is the exchange of O2 with CO2 Respiration occurs in 4 steps: 1. ventilation: breathing in O2 & out CO2 (lungs fill with air & empty) 2. external respiration: gas exchange between air & blood 3. gas transport by blood throughout body 4. internal respiration: gas exchange between blood & body cells Breathing Mechanism: • a.k.a. ventilation • occurs by inspiration (breathing in, or inhalation) and expiration (breathing out, or exhalation) • the pressure on the inside of the lungs is about the same as the pressure on the outside of the thoracic cavity • The diaphragm contracts & relaxes, allowing inspiration & expiration. Nonrespiratory Air Movements: • Air movements with the respiratory system for reasons other than air exchange. – This can be coughing, sneezing, laughing, crying, hiccupping, or yawning. – A hiccup is a spasm of the diaphragm. – Yawning is usually to aid the body in taking deep breaths. – These are considered reflexes. – Coughing & sneezing generally clear air passages Respiratory Imbalances: • Emphysema is a disease of the lungs in which the alveolar walls degenerate. • This is a progressive disease that reduces the elasticity of the alveoli. • This is caused by tobacco smoke, pollution or heredity. http://www.google.com/imgres http://www.uh.edu/engines/lungs.jpg Respiratory Imbalances: • Lung cancer is the abnormal cell growth in the lungs. This has a variety of causes, from tobacco to asbestos. This disease metastasizes to major organs and is not treated with much success. http://www.google.com/imgres Bronchoscope (to detect abnormalities): Collapsed Lung: http://www.healthcentral.com/images/ency/fullsize/19589.jpg http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/t humb/8/82/300px-Bronchoscopy1.jpg Lung Cancer: http://www.google.com/imgres Breathing Control: • Breathing is a reflex (occurs even when unconscious) • It is rhythmic and involuntary • The muscles can be controlled, however • Respiratory Center: – This is a group of neurons found in the brain: pons and medulla oblongata http://academic.kellogg.cc.mi.us/herbrands onc/bio201_McKinley/f1520a_pons_longitudin_c.jpg Control of Respiration: • Physical Factors: nonrespiratory movements • Conscious Control: exercise • Emotional Factors: fear; pain • Chemical Factors: levels of O2 & CO2 Asthma • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bX2gk Y0fXKY In the United States, the term "COPD" includes two main conditions—emphysema and chronic bronchitis. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/copd/ CHOKING Heimlich maneuver https://www.google.com/?trackid=sp006#q=Heimlich+maneuver+video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tEIiEAn7 b-U APGAR SCORE for newborns https://www.google.com/search?q=apgar+score&tbm=isch&imgil=runpegAHjUXL0M%253A%253BwDWPwovZBifDCM%253Bhttp%25253A%25252F%25252Fdrgarys wift.com.au%25252Fobstetrician-apgarscore%25252F&source=iu&pf=m&fir=runpegAHjUXL0M%253A%252CwDWPwovZBifDCM%252C_&usg=__ByLhMPEKJFaIAsaIIC643pU6q_4%3D&biw=1280&bih=91 3&ved=0ahUKEwi-ppWGpPfSAhWD4yYKHe4dBX0QyjcIVA&ei=flXZWL7vDYPHmwHuu5ToBw#imgrc=SDhVaizkZAtUvM: • • This slide show was developed by Dana Halloran, Cardinal Mooney High School, Sarasota, FL. • • • Used with her personal permission, adapted and amended by Rosa Whiting, Manatee School for the Arts, Palmetto, FL.