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Warm Up-Write these vocabulary
terms in your Extras section
• Aqueduct-a pipe or channel that brings water
from distant places
• Cuneiform-writing that uses wedge-shaped
• Empire-a large territory in which several groups
of people are ruled by a single leader or
• Siege-a military blockage and attack on a city to
force it to surrender
• Ziggurat-an ancient Mesopotamian temple tower
Warm Up-10/3 and 10/6
• In your WARM UP section:
• Date the page
• Explain what the 7 characteristics of a
civilization are in a sentence.
The Four Empires of Mesopotamia
I. Mesopotamia
A. Mesopotamia means “the land between the
rivers” Also known as the Fertile Crescent or
Cradle of Civilization.
1. River valley between the Tigris and
Euphrates Rivers
2. Settled by the Sumerians independent citystates
3. Constant fighting weaken the Sumerians
and the were unable to defend themselves
II. The Akkadian Empire
2300-2100 B.C.E.
A. The world’s first empire
B. King Sargon, strong king and skilled general
1. Control through political strategies
a. Destroyed city walls to keep rebellions
b. Choose governors loyal to him
c. 1st king to demand that his rule is passed
down to his sons
II. The Akkadian Empire
C. Use of Sumerian ideas
1. Irrigation system
2. Record keeping- cuneiform “wedge” writing
3. Worshipped same gods as Sumerians (but
changed their names)
II. The Akkadian Empire
D. Achievements
1. 3-D sculptures called steles
which recorded their history
E. The fall
1. Too large to rule
2. Fell back into Sumerian citystates
III. The Babylonian Empire
1750-1595 B.C.E.
A. First empire to apply the law to everyone
B. King Hammurabi
1. His small city-state of Babylon conquered
the rest of Mesopotamia
2. Made the city of Babylon the new capital
III. The Babylonian EmpireAchievements
C. Achievements
1. Hammurabi’s Code (applied to everyone, but
all not treated equally)
a. 282 laws written on a stele placed in a
temple for all to see
b. Harsh- “an eye for an eye”
c. Unified the people and preserved order
d. Based on the gods’ will
e. Could never be changed
Code of Hammurabi
III. The Babylonian EmpireAchievements
2. Agriculture and trade flourished
a. Roads were built
b. Irrigation systems
c. Capital city, Babylon became center for trade along
Euphrates River
3. Arts - historical poems
4. Women and slaves
a. Unlike other ancient cultures, treated unusually fair
i. Slaves could keep their wages and own property,
even buying freedom
ii. Women could own property and keep their own
Carving showing slaves
Woman Weaving
III. The Babylonian Empire
D. The fall
1. Too large to govern
Warm Up Oct 7 & Oct 8
• Write these questions in the warm up section of
your Inbook. Leave room for answers. (DO NOT
1. Mesopotamia was the land between which two
2. Name King Sargon’s city-state and his empire.
3. Which empire was larger the Akkadian or the
Babylonian Empire?
IV. The Assyrian Empire
900-600 B.C.E.
A. A warlike people
1. 900 B.C.E. rulers trained Assyrians for war
2. Weapons made of iron and use of horses in war
3. Strategies
a. The siege – attacking a city over and over until it
b. Use of battering rams to poke holes in city walls
c. Moveable towers used to climb over city walls
d. Use of fear – cut off enemy heads and made
defeated walk barefoot and carry heads
Assyrian King with Gods
IV. The Assyrian Empire
B. Achievements
1. Built beautiful palaces for kings on high
2. Designed the earliest aqueducts
3. Created 2-D sculptures that were very realistic
C. The fall
1. After 300 years of rule the empire became too
large to rule
V. The Neo-Babylonians
600-539 B.C.E.
A. Babylonians regain control over Mesopotamia
1. Neo-Babylonian Empire – “neo” means new
B. Famous King Nebuchadrezzar II, a ruthless
military leader
1. Built inner and outer walls around Babylon
2. Built towers for archers to defend the city
3. Built a moat outside the walls
V. The Neo-Babylonians
C. Achievements
1. Rebuilt the city’s ziggurat “holy mountain” temple
a. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon
i. One of the ancient wonders of the world,
an engineering masterpiece
ii. Terraces with an irrigation system
2. Math and astronomy
a. 1st sundial creating 60 min. hour and 7 day week
D. The fall
1. Too big to rule and defend
2. Conquered by King Cyrus of the Persian Empire
Hanging Gardens
Achievement Steles
• On p. 26 of your
Inbook create four
steles (one for
each empireAkkadians,
Assyrians, and
celebrating their
most important
Oct 9 & Oct 10
• Write a 4 line poem (2 lines per empire) about
the achievement of the Assyrian and NeoBabylonian Empire.