* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
FEUDALISM IN EUROPE By: Ms. Tran Essential Questions 1. 2. Why did feudalism develop? How did feudalism affect the political, social, and economic environment of medieval Europe? Setting the Stage for Feudalism Emperor Charlemagne’s son dies and leaves the empire to his three sons And what usually happens when you and your sibling are given one toy to share between the two of you? You end up fighting! Setting the Stage for Feudalism The three sons - Lothair, Charles the Bald, and Louis the German (What fun nicknames, huh?) – go to war for control of the Empire They finally stop fighting and sign the Treaty of Verdun, dividing the empire into three kingdoms Question to Ponder What’s the benefit of having one king instead of three different kings? Disunity Causes Chaos and Invasion 800 to 1000 C.E. – invasion destroyed the Carolingian Empire Who invaded? Muslims from the South Magyars from the East Vikings from the North Vikings What do you think of when you hear the word “Viking”? The Vikings Today, Vikings are portrayed as harmless, friendly, jolly ladies and fellows. In reality, back during Medieval times, Vikings were quite terrifying! Are Germanic peoples from Scandanavia Worshipped warlike gods Had nicknames like Eric Bloodaxe and Thorfinn Skullspitter The Vikings Known for attacking and raiding villages with great speed Used swords, wooden shields Known for their advanced shipbuilding and sailing skills Looted, pillaged, and went back out to sea The Vikings Interesting Fact: A Viking explorer named Leif Ericson actually reached North America almost 500 years before Columbus did! Scandanavians start settling down and giving up the Viking lifestyle as more adopt Christianity and the climate made farming easier Magyars and Muslims Attack from the East and South Magyars: group of nomadic people, attacked Europe from the east Superb horsemen Attacked villages and monasteries Didn’t settle down, captured people as slaves Magyars and Muslims Attack from the East and South Muslims: Recap: Who are the Muslims again? Attack from the south Wanted to conquer and settle in Europe, but later on, their goals is to plunder Expert seafarers Analyze this map: A) What lands did the Vikings raid? B) Why were these invasions so threatening to Europe? Let’s Imagine… Everyday after school, you like to go home and relax, maybe sit on the couch, watch T.V., and eat a snack before dinner time. However, right as you open a bag of chips, strangers barge in from the front door, the backyard, and through the window! They take your bag of chips, your T.V., and all the pillow cushions on your couch, and they have effectively terrified you and your mom. After 5 minutes, these strangers run out of there as fast as they came in! You stand there and have no idea what just happened… And imagine this scenario happened about every 2-3 weeks. How would you feel? Question to Ponder What was the impact of Viking, Magyar, and Muslim invasions on medieval Europe? Effects of the Invasions People in Western Europe lived in constant danger Kings were powerless to defend their lands from invasion People no longer looked to a central ruler for security They start to turn to local rulers who have their own armies These local rulers start to gain followers and political power: Feudalism emerges What is Feudalism? A political and economic system based on land ownership and personal loyalty Remember Japanese Feudalism? Based on rights, obligations, and mutually-beneficial agreements (both sides gain something) Lord – landowners, granted fiefs in return for military service Fief – land that’s given to the vassal from the lord Vassal – the person receiving the fief from the lord in return for his military loyalty and service to the lord Feudalism Knights: mounted horsemen who pledged to defend their lords’ lands in exchange for fiefs Serfs - peasants who were tied to the land (can’t leave the place they were born) and farmed the land. Everything they owned belonged to the lord in exchange for protection and a place to live and farm Feudal System Life as a Peasant Never traveled – worked all day for their entire lives (from childhood to adulthood – if they survived that long) Short life spans – about 35 years Lived in small cottages (1-2 rooms), slept on piles of straw, had dirt-floors, ate simple diet Owed their lord certain duties, such as a few days of labor per week and some of their grain Everything they farmed and produced technically belonged to the lord They also had to pay taxes on everything – even getting married! Had to get permission from the lord for many decisions Also had to pay tithe – a church tax Life as a Peasant PRIMARY SOURCE: What by spinning they save, they spend it in house-hire, Both in milk and in meal to make a mess of porridge, To cheer up their children who chafe for their food, And they themselves suffer surely much hunger And woe in the winter, with waking at nights And rising to rock an oft restless cradle. Manor Life was a Tough Life Manor – the Lord’s estate (land), the basic economic system of the time Based on the rights and obligations between a lord and his serfs The lord gets people to take care of his animals, land, and home Peasants get housing, farmland, and protection from bandits Each manor was like a mini town: the lord’s house, a church, workshops, a mill,15-30 families in a village Produced everything they needed in the manor Question to Ponder How and why did peasants endure such a lifestyle? What benefits did they receive from living on a manor? Now answer these questions in your notes: 1. 2. 3. Why did feudalism develop? How did feudalism affect the political, social, and economic environment of medieval Europe? What social class would you want to be part of if you were living in medieval Europe, and why?