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Transcript
Chapter 8 section 1
The Early Middle Ages
A Land of Great Potential
Rome linked many European territories with roads
-Led to the spread of ideas (cultural diffusion)
-Germanic people who ended the Roman Empire, shifted their focus to the North
Germanic Kingdoms
Germanic tribes who migrated across Europe were Farmers and Traders
-Had no cities
-No written laws
-Warrior Kings ruled them
Between 400 and 700 A.D. Germanic tribes carved Europe into many small Kingdoms
-Strongest and most powerful were the Franks
-481, Clovis became King of the Franks
-Brilliant, but Ruthless leader
-Preserved Roman legacy in Gaul
-Converted to Christianity (gained an ally in the Roman Catholic Church)
Islam: A New Mediterranean Power
Emerged from Arabia in 632 A.D.
-Christians were afraid because Muslims were winning battles in the Mediterranean
-Overran Christian Kingdoms in North Africa and Spain
-Battle of Tours in France, Frankish warriors defeated a Muslim Army (sign from God)
The Age of Charlemagne (Charles the Great)
-Empire stretched from France, Germany, and part of Italy
-Spent most of his life fighting
-Reunited most of the old Roman empire in Europe
-Pope Leo III needed help from rebellious nobles of Rome
-Charlemagne crushed the rebels, crowned emperor of Rome (West)
Charlemagne's Legacy
Empire soon fell apart after his death
-843 A.D. his grandsons drew up the treaty of Verdun (split the empire into three regions)
-Extended Christianity in Europe
-Learning
Chapter 8 section 2
Feudalism and the Manor Economy
A New System of Rule
Faced with constant invasions, Kings and Emperors were too weak to maintain order
-In response for the basic need of protection, feudalism evolved
Let's Review
What is Feudalism?
-Powerful local lords divided their large lands among lesser lords
-In exchange for land, these lesser lords called Vassals pledged service and loyalty to the greater
lord
-Lord granted the vassals fief (estate)
-Peasants worked the land
Lords, Vassals, and Knights
-Everyone had a place in feudal society
-Vassals usually held land from many lords, feudal relationships grew to be complex
The World of Warriors
Feudal lords battled constantly for power
-Many nobles practiced from boyhood to be a knight (mounted warrior)
Training for Knighthood
-At age 7, a boy slated to become a knight would be sent to the castle of his father's lord
-Learned how to ride and fight
-How to take care of weapons
-Training was very strict
-Training finished at age 21
Role of Noblewomen
"Lord of the Manor"
-supervised vassals, managed the household, medical tasks
-Sometimes even went to war to protect her estate
-Parents arranged her marriage
Chivalry (code of conduct for knights)
-Knights to be brave, loyal, and true to their word
-Had to fight fairly in warfare
The Manor
-Defined as the Lord's estate
-Most manors included one or more villages, and surrounding lands
-Peasants lived and work on the manor
-Most were serfs (were not slaves, but not free)
Peasants (serfs)
-Had to work several days a week farming the lord's land
-Repair the lord's roads, bridges, and fences
-Paid the lord a fee when they married
-Paid with products (fruit, honey, eggs, etc..)
-Farmed several acres for themselves
-Given protection by their lord
-Guaranteed food, housing, and land
Daily Life
-Life was harsh for most peasants
-Sunrise to sundown working
-Worked according to the season
-Disease took a heavy toll in Winter (few lived past 35)
-Believed in elves, fairies, and other nature spirits
-Faith in love potions, and magic charms
Chapter 8 section 3
The Medieval Church
A Spiritual and worldly Empire
After the fall of Rome, the Christian Church split into East and West
-Western church headed by the Pope became known as the Roman-Catholic Church
-Grew stronger and wealthier in the Middle Ages
-Became the most powerful secular in Europe (worldly force)
Pope was the leader of the Roman-Catholic church
-ruled lands in central Italy (papal states)
Authority of the Church
-Medieval church believed all people were sinners doomed for eternal suffering
-Participate in the sacraments (rituals of the church)
The church had it's own body of laws called canon laws
-Pertained to religious teachings
-Behavior of the clergy
-Marriages and morals
Anyone who refused to obey church laws were excommunicated (could never be saved)
-shunned from society
The Church and Daily Life
tithe-tax equal to one tenth of a person's income (used to help the poor)
-Church taught that men and women were equal to god
-On earth, women were inferior
-church tried to protect women (set minimum age of marriage)
Monks and Nuns
-Withdraw from worldly life to become a Monk or Nun
Benedictine Rule
-Took an oath of poverty
-Chief duties were prayer and to worship God
-Monks worked in fields (other physical tasks)
A Life of Service
monasteries provided basic social services
-Monks and Nuns tended to the sick
-Gave charity to the poor
-Set up schools for children
-Preserved ancient writings
Missionaries
Monks and Nuns traveled across Europe spreading the word of God
Reform Movements
As wealth and power grew, discipline weakened in the Church
-Clergy were worldly (living in luxury)
-Monks and Nuns ignored their vows
-Growing corruption in the church
Abbot Berno
-Set out to end abuses by the church
-Revived Benedictine rule
-Filled the monastery with men who were really committed to religion
-Pope Gregory VII prohibited simony (selling of church positions)
Jews in Western Europe
Many Jewish communities
-Spread to Northern Europe
-Many Christian rulers tolerated the Jews
-Often, Jews were persecuted
-Churched banned them from owning property
-Said Jews were responsible for the death of Jesus
-Anti-Semitism- prejudice against Jews
Chapter 8 section 4
Economic Expansion and Change
An Agricultural Revolution
By 1,000 A.D. Europe's economic recovery started
-Peasants adopted new farming technology (transformed Europe)
-Iron plows
-Harness
-Windmills
Peasants adopted the three field system
-Plant one field of grain
-One with legumes
-Third one was fallow
Trade Revives
Europe's population was growing, as a result trade increased
-Peasants needed iron for tools
-nobles wanted fine wools, furs and spices
-Feudal warfare declined
-Set up trade routes in Asia and the middle East
Trade Fairs
Traders and customers met to exchange goods
-Peasants traded farm goods and animals
New Towns
Slowly, small trade fairs developed into medieval cities
Charter- written document that set out rights and privileges for the town
-Granted people the right to choose their own leaders, and control their own affairs
-Anyone (runaway serfs) who lived in a town a year and a day would be free
A Commercial Revolution
As a result of trade reviving, money reappeared
-Capital- money used for investment
New Business practices
businesses started to partner up
-insurance for merchandise
Social Changes
Feudal society crumbled even more
-Serfs could now buy their way out of servitude
-Middle class emerged, between nobles and peasants (merchants, traders, and artisans)
Role of Guilds
Guild- associations made by the merchants
-Passed laws, Levied taxes, and decided how to spend the town's money
-Artisans started to resent the merchant guilds
-Formed their own craft guilds (weavers, bakers, sword makers, etc..)
-Had to be a guild member to work in a trade
-had to become an apprentice (trainee)
Training
-At age seven, a child was sent to a guild master
-Spent seven years learning the trade
-Received bed and board as pay
-Few apprentices became guild members unless they were related to one
Feudalism and the Manor Economy
Feudalism
-Powerful local lords divided their large lands among lesser lords
-In exchange for land, these lesser lords called Vassals pledged service and loyalty to the
greater lord
Training for Knighthood
-At age 7, boys started training to become a knight
Role of Noblewomen
-supervised vassals, managed the household, medical tasks
-went to war to protect her estate
Chivalry (code of conduct for knights)
-Knights to be brave, loyal, and true to their word
-Had to fight fairly in warfare
The Manor The Lord's estate
-Peasants lived and work on the manor
-Most were serfs (were not slaves, but not free)
Peasants (serfs)
-Had to work several days a week farming the lord's land
-Farmed several acres for themselves
-Given protection by their lord
-Guaranteed food, housing, and land
Daily Life
-Life was harsh for most peasants
-Sunrise to sundown working
-Disease (few lived past 35)
Economic Expansion and Change
An Agricultural Revolution
- New farming technology
-Iron plows, harness, windmills
Trade Revives
-need for iron for tools
-nobles wanted fine wools, furs and spices
-Set up trade routes in Asia and the Middle East
Development of medieval cities
Charter- written document that set out rights and privileges for the town
-Granted people the right to choose their own leaders, and control their own
affairs
A Commercial Revolution
-Money reappeared
-Capital- money used for investment
-Businesses started to partner up
Social Changes
-Serfs could now buy their way out of servitude
-Middle class emerged, between nobles and peasants (merchants, traders,
and artisans)
Role of Guilds
Guild- associations made by the merchants
-Passed laws, Levied taxes, and decided how to spend the town's money
-Formed their own craft guilds (weavers, bakers, sword makers, etc..)
Training
-At age seven, a child was sent to a guild master
-Spent seven years learning the trade