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Anatomy of Respiratory System
EX 36
Respiration
We can
unit
divide this
into 3 topics
1) Anatomy
2) mechanics of breathing
3)
Chemistry of respiration
Respiration
- Consists of 4
l)
Breathing
or
inspiration /
events
(inhalation
exhalation
or expiration
2)
External respiration
exchange of gas between
1 the the alveoli and blood
(in the lungs)
3) Internal respiration
The exchange of gases
from the blood to the
tissues
4) cellular respiration
Organization and Functions of the
Respiratory System
Consists of an upper respiratory tract (nose to larynx) and a lower respiratory tract (
trachea onwards) .
Conducting portion transports air.
- includes the nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and progressively
smaller airways, from the primary bronchi to the terminal bronchioles
Respiratory portion carries out gas exchange.
- composed of small airways called respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts as
well as air sacs called alveoli
Respiratory System Functions
supplies the body with oxygen and disposes of carbon dioxide
filters inspired air
produces sound
contains receptors for smell
rids the body of some excess water and heat
helps regulate blood pH
Breathing
Breathing (pulmonary ventilation). consists of two cyclic phases:
inhalation, also called inspiration - draws gases into the lungs.
exhalation, also called expiration - forces gases out of the lungs.
Upper Respiratory Tract
Composed of the nose and nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses,
pharynx (throat), larynx.
All part of the conducting portion of the respiratory system.
Respiratory mucosa
A layer of pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelial cells that
secrete mucus
Found in nose, sinuses, pharynx, larynx and trachea
Mucus can trap contaminants
Cilia move mucus up towards mouth
Upper Respiratory Tract
Nose
Internal nares - opening to exterior
External nares opening to pharynx
Nasal conchae - folds in the mucous membrane that increase air
turbulence and ensures that most air contacts the mucous
membranes
Nose
rich supply of capillaries warm the inspired air
olfactory mucosa – mucous membranes that contain smell receptors
respiratory mucosa – pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium containing
goblet cells that secrete mucus which traps inhaled particles,
lysozyme kills bacteria and lymphocytes and
IgA antibodies that protect against bacteria
Nose
provides and airway for respiration
• moistens and warms entering air
• filters and cleans inspired air
• resonating chamber for speech
detects odors in the air stream
rhinoplasty: surgery to change shape of external nose
Pharynx
Common space used by both the respiratory and digestive systems.
Commonly called the throat.
Originates posterior to the nasal and oral cavities and extends
inferiorly near the level of the bifurcation of the larynx and
esophagus.
Common pathway for both air and food.
Pharynx
Walls are lined by a mucosa and contain skeletal muscles that are primarily
used for swallowing.
Flexible lateral walls are distensible in order to force swallowed food into the
esophagus.
Partitioned into three adjoining regions:
nasopharynx
oropharynx
laryngopharynx
Laryngopharynx
Inferior, narrowed region of the pharynx.
Extends inferiorly from the hyoid bone to the larynx and esophagus.
Terminates at the superior border of the esophagus and the epiglottis of the
larynx.
Lined with a nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
Permits passage of both food and air.
Lower Respiratory Tract
Conducting airways (trachea, bronchi, up to terminal bronchioles).
Respiratory portion of the respiratory system (respiratory
bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli).
Larynx
Voice box is a short, somewhat cylindrical airway ends in the trachea.
Prevents swallowed materials from entering the lower respiratory tract.
Conducts air into the lower respiratory tract.
Produces sounds.
Supported by a framework of nine pieces of cartilage (three individual
pieces and three cartilage pairs) that are held in place by ligaments and
muscles.
Larynx
Nine c-rings of cartilage form the framework of the larynx
thyroid cartilage – (1) Adam’s apple, hyaline, anterior attachment of
vocal folds, testosterone increases size after puberty
cricoid cartilage – (1) ring-shaped, hyaline
arytenoid cartilages – (2) hyaline, posterior attachment of vocal folds,
hyaline
cuneiform cartilages - (2) hyaline
corniculate cartlages - (2) hyaline
epiglottis – (1) elastic cartilage
Larynx
Muscular walls aid in voice production and the swallowing
reflex
Glottis – the superior opening of the larynx
Epiglottis – prevents food and drink from entering airway
when swallowing
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
Respiratory Zone of Lower Respiratory Tract
Conduction vs. Respiratory
zones
Most of the tubing in the lungs makes up conduction zone
Consists of nasal cavity to terminal bronchioles
The respiratory zone is where gas is exchanged
Consists of alveoli, alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and respiratory
bronchioles
Respiratory Bronchioles, Alveolar Ducts, and
Alveoli
Lungs contain small saccular outpocketings called alveoli.
They have a thin wall specialized to promote diffusion of gases between
the alveolus and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries.
Gas exchange can take place in the respiratory bronchioles and alveolar
ducts as well as in the alveoli, each lung contains approximately 300 to 400
million alveoli.
The spongy nature of the lung is due to the packing of millions of alveoli
together.
Pleura and Pleural Cavities
The outer surface of each lung and the adjacent internal thoracic wall are
lined by a serous membrane called pleura.
The outer surface of each lung is tightly covered by the visceral pleura.
while the internal thoracic walls, the lateral surfaces of the mediastinum,
and the superior surface of the diaphragm are lined by the parietal pleura.
The parietal and visceral pleural layers are continuous at the hilus of each
lung.
Pleural Cavities
The potential space between the serous membrane layers is a pleural cavity.
The pleural membranes produce a thin, serous pleural fluid that circulates in
the pleural cavity and acts as a lubricant, ensuring minimal friction during
breathing.
Pleural effusion – pleuritis with too much fluid
Respiratory events
Pulmonary ventilation = exchange of gases between lungs and
atmosphere
External respiration = exchange of gases between alveoli and
pulmonary capillaries
Internal respiration = exchange of gases between systemic
capillaries and tissue cells
Two phases of pulmonary ventilation
Inspiration, or inhalation - a very active process that requires input of
energy.The diaphragm, contracts, moving downward and flattening, when
stimulated by phrenic nerves.
Expiration, or exhalation - a passive process that takes advantage of the
recoil properties of elastic fiber. ・The diaphragm relaxes.The elasticity of the
lungs and the thoracic cage allows them to return to their normal size and
shape.
Muscles that ASSIST with respiration
The scalenes help increase thoracic cavity dimensions by elevating the first
and second ribs during forced inhalation.
The ribs elevate upon contraction of the external intercostals, thereby
increasing the transverse dimensions of the thoracic cavity during
inhalation.
Contraction of the internal intercostals depresses the ribs, but this only
occurs during forced exhalation.
Normal exhalation requires no active muscular effort.
Muscles that ASSIST with respiration
Other accessory muscles assist with respiratory activities.
The pectoralis minor, serratus anterior, and sternocleidomastoid help with
forced inhalation,
while the abdominal muscles(external and internal obliques, transversus
abdominis, and rectus abdominis) assist in active exhalation.
LUNG VOLUMES
TIDAL VOLUME (TV): Volume inspired or expired with each normalハ
breath. = 500 ml
INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME (IRV): Maximum volume that can be
inspired over the inspiration of a tidal volume/normal breath. Used
during exercise/exertion.=3100 ml
EXPIRATRY RESERVE VOLUME (ERV): Maximal volume that can be
expired after the expiration of a tidal volume/normal breath. = 1200 ml
RESIDUAL VOLUME (RV): Volume that remains in the lungs after a
maximal expiration.ハ CANNOT be measured by spirometry.= 1200 ml
LUNG CAPACITIES
INSPIRATORY CAPACITY ( IC): Volume of maximal inspiration:IRV + TV = 3600 ml
FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY (FRC): Volume of gas remaining in lung after normal expiration, cannot be measured
by spirometry because it includes residual volume:ERV + RV = 2400 ml
VITAL CAPACITY (VC): Volume of maximal inspiration and expiration:IRV + TV + ERV = IC + ERV = 4800 ml
TOTAL LUNG CAPACITY (TLC): The volume of the lung after maximal inspiration.ハ The sum of all four lung volumes, cannot
be measured by spirometry because it includes residual volume:IRV+ TV + ERV + RV = IC + FRC = 6000 ml