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PowerPoint® Lecture Slide Presentation by Robert J. Sullivan, Marist College
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
EXCHANGE OF GASES
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings.
What is Human Respiration?


The human respiratory system allows one to
obtain oxygen and eliminate carbon dioxide.
Breathing consists of two phases, inspiration
and expiration
 Inspiration- the process of taking in air
(O2)
 Expiration- the process of blowing out air
(CO2)
Human Respiratory System
Figure 10.1
Organs in the Respiratory System
STRUCTURE
FUNCTION
nose / nasal cavity
warms, moistens, & filters air as it is
inhaled
pharynx (throat)
passageway for air, leads to trachea
larynx
trachea (windpipe)
bronchi
bronchioles
alveoli
the voice box, where vocal chords are
located
keeps the windpipe "open"
trachea is lined with fine hairs called
cilia which filter air before it reaches the
lungs
two branches at the end of the trachea,
each lead to a lung
a network of smaller branches leading from
the bronchi into the lung tissue &
ultimately to air sacs
the functional respiratory units in the lung
where gases are exchanged
Components of the Upper
Respiratory Tract
Figure 10.2
Upper Respiratory Tract Functions





Passageway for respiration
Receptors for smell
Filters incoming air to filter larger foreign
material
Moistens and warms incoming air
Resonating chambers for voice (voice box)
Components of the Lower
Respiratory Tract
Figure 10.3
Lower Respiratory Tract

Functions:
Larynx: maintains an open airway, routes food
and air appropriately, assists in sound production
 Trachea: transports air to and from lungs
 Bronchi: branch into lungs
 Lungs: transport air to alveoli for gas exchange
 Alveoli: Gas exchange occurs

Gas Exchange Between the Blood
and Alveoli
Figure 10.8A
Respiratory Cycle
Figure 10.9
Four Respiration Processes




Breathing (ventilation): Oxygen in to and Carbon
Dioxide out of the lungs
External respiration: gas exchange between air
and blood (what can be exposed to the outside
of the body)
Internal respiration: gas exchange between
blood and tissues (what cannot be exposed to
the outside of the body)
Cellular respiration: oxygen used to produce ATP
(energy), carbon dioxide is the waste product –
Where does this process occur?
Malfunctions & Diseases of the Respiratory System
asthma
bronchitis
A severe allergic reaction
characterized by the
constriction of bronchioles
Inflammation of the lining of
the bronchioles
emphysema
A condition in which the alveoli
deteriorate, causing the lungs
to lose their elasticity
pneumonia
Caused by the bacteria,
pneumococcus. A condition in
which the alveoli become filled
with fluid, preventing the
exchange of gases
lung cancer
An irregular & uncontrolled
growth of tumors in the lung
Measurement of Lung Capacity
Figure 10.10A