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Exploration and Settlement of the New World SS8H1B EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF EUROPEAN CONTACT ON NATIVE AMERICAN CULTURES; INCLUDE SPANISH MISSIONS ALONG THE BARRIER ISLANDS, AND THE EXPLORATION OF HERNANDO DE SOTO SS8H1C EXPLAIN REASONS FOR EUROPEAN EXPLORATION AND SETTLEMENT OF NORTH AMERICA, WITH EMPHASIS ON THE INTERESTS OF THE FRENCH, SPANISH, AND BRITISH IN THE SOUTHEASTERN AREA. Spanish Exploration of the New World Exploration of Georgia 1539: Hernando De Soto left Havana, Cuba with a huge group of 600 men, 200 horses and other animals such as mules and dogs. They marched up through Spanish controlled Florida and entered Georgia in 1540 looking for gold. This was the first time that the Native Americans had seen a white man and horses. De Soto and his men fought against the Native Americans using armor, guns, and crossbows Thousands of Indians died from war Many died from diseases such as measles, small pox, whooping cough and influenza Many Indians were enslaved and tortured Was De Soto’s mission a success? De Soto's Mission was a Failure He found no gold or treasure. Most of his army was lost to starvation and disease. His march through Georgia changed the life and culture of the Native American’s forever. Many nations followed his examples and began competing with the N.A. for control of the land. Spain, France and England Hernando De Soto Early Spanish Missions Spanish Missions 1565: Captain General Pedro Menendez begins the colony of St. Augustine. 1566: The Spaniards moved up the coast to the Cumberland Islands They named the region Guale for the Indians living in the area. The Missions were created to convert the Indians to Catholicism. Spain became rich and powerful in the 1500’s because of the control that they had over the new world and the riches that they were taking from the natives. St. Augustine English Settlements IN THE NEW WORLD Mercantilism Whats the point? Many European countries began to establish colonies in the new world in order to gain more power. 1500’s to 1700’s: European countries engage in mercantilism. The goal is to become self sufficient by: Exporting more goods then imported Gain and control the most land Regulate trade by passing laws Mercantilist Mercantilism Established What was Being Imported Why Ship Raw Materials Cotton To Make: Furniture Clothing Tools Sugar Forest Products Tobacco This was done to make England a dominant empire in the world economy. The British Invade The Joys of Winning After gaining control of the seas by defeating the Spanish Armada in 1588, England begins pursuing her interest in the new world by setting up colonies. They sought out the same things as the other European Countries: Gold Silver Treasures Riches Colonization English Colonization Virginia and Massachusetts were founded first By the end of the 1600’s, England had established 12 colonies along the Eastern seaboard of the New World. Who founded these colonies and why? Some were founded by religious or political refugees. Some came to the colonies just for financial gain. Some came for religious freedom Some felt the need to convert the N.A. to Christianity. Permanent Settlements Permanent Settlements began in the New World with the English settlement of Jamestown, VA. Many settlers initially died off because of malaria. However, the colony flourished due to the tobacco crop With more work came the need for more workers The Dutch introduced Africans into VA in 1619 Most were indentured servants-------not slaves. They agreed to work for someone for a set period of time in return for a passage to the new world. Usually 4 to 7 years Most Africans however were eventually treated as slaves. Georgia is Created The English began to settle New England and the Carolinas. They ran the Spanish back down to St. Augustine. However, the English felt they needed a buffer between Spanish controlled Florida and the Carolinas. Therefore, Fort King Georgia was built at the base of the Altamaha River to keep both the French and Spanish away. Although this garrison was abandoned in 1727, the English established their presence in Georgia. New World-Old World Exchanges Both world’s benefitted from the exploration of the new world. The Europeans were able to: Spread their Christian beliefs Gain riches from the land and from the Native Americans Exchange food, plants and animals However, some of the animals that were brought to the new world destroyed the ground cover which led to the extinction of some native animals.