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European Exploration of the New
SS8H1: The student will evaluate the
development of Native American
cultures and the impact of European
exploration and settlement on Native
American cultures
Reasons for Exploration
• Wanted to find the shortest trade route to
Asia (China) and the West Indies.
• In search of gold, spices (i.e. pepper,
cinnamon, nutmeg, and cloves), and silk.
• To spread Christianity.
• The three G’s:
– Gold
– God
– Glory
The Age of Exploration
• Prince Henry the
Navigator of
Portugal – Began
exploring the western
and SW coasts of
• Bartholomew Diaz –
rounded the southern
tip of Africa in 1488.
The Age of Exploration
• Christopher Columbus
– Landed in San
Salvador (Bahamas) on
Oct. 12, 1492.
– Three ships (Pinta, Nina,
and the Santa Maria)
– Believed he reached the
East Indies (China).
– Made four journeys to the
“New World.”
– Opened the New World to
other European
The Age of Exploration
• John Cabot –
(Canada) in 1497.
The Age of Exploration
• Vasca da Gama
- Sailed around
the continent of
Africa and
reached India in
1498. Opened a
trade route with
Age of Exploration
• Ferdinand
Magellan –
First to reach
Asia by sailing
west. First
person to sail
around the
entire globe.
Spanish Exploration of the New
• Spain explores the Caribbean in search
of wealth.
– 1513 – Juan Ponce de Leon discovers
– 1519 – Hernando Cortez lands in Mexico
(defeats Aztecs by 1521).
– 1533 Francisco Pizarro sets out for
western South America (defeats the Incas
by 1535).
Hernando de Soto
• Searched for gold.
• 1539 – began exploring Florida (expedition
involved over 600 men).
• 1540 – entered SW Georgia near Albany.
• De Soto’s group had superior weaponry (guns,
crossbows, armor).
• De Soto’s expedition was responsible for the
death of thousands of Native Americans.
– Due to warfare, but primarily from disease (measles,
smallpox, influenza).
• Never found gold.
Hernando de Soto
Spanish Explorers
Impact of Spanish Exploration
• Europeans brought tools, goods, and
diseases that would change Native
Americans’ way of life forever.
• Horses and Guns were important because:
– They helped Europeans travel large areas.
– Helped with trade.
– Helped conquer people.
• Begins slavery in the Americas.
• The spread of diseases killed thousands of
Native Americans.
Early Spanish Missions
• Believed it was their duty to spread
• Mission – a settlement formed by a church in a
foreign country to spread its faith.
• Missionary – someone sent by a church to a
foreign country to spread its faith. To teach
others how to become “civilized.”
• Early Spanish missions were built in the barrier
islands off coast of GA.
• Native Americans used the missions to learn
English, trade, and negotiate.
Exit Questions
• 1. What country did Columbus sail for?
• 2. Why did Columbus call the Native
Americans Indians?
• 3. What were the three reasons for
Spanish Exploration?
• 4. Who was first European to explore
• 5. What were the diseases that killed the
Native Americans during De Soto’s
Reasons for English
• Refugees for Protestants
• Spread Christianity
(Protestantism) to Indians
• Mercantilism (a policy that
England should export more
than it imports)
Reasons for French Exploration
• To find new trading partners
• Spread Catholicism
• Explored the Northern
• Explored Ohio river valley
New World/Old World Exchange
• New World
– Potatoes
– Sweet Potatoes
– Peanuts
– Turkey
– Yams
– Pumpkin
– Corn
– Chocolate
• Europe
– Horses
– Rye
– Radishes
– Beets
– Sugar cane
– Rice
– Peaches
– Wheat
– Chickens
– Pigs
– Oxen
– Sheep
– Goats
– Cattle
– alcohol
• 1. What is the number one
reason for the Spanish Missions?
• 2. What religion are the Spanish?
• 3. What is mercantilism?
• 4. Name 3 things that Europe
exchanged to the New World.
Name 3 things that the New World
exchanged to Europe?