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European Exploration of the New World SS8H1: The student will evaluate the development of Native American cultures and the impact of European exploration and settlement on Native American cultures Reasons for Exploration • Wanted to find the shortest trade route to Asia (China) and the West Indies. • In search of gold, spices (i.e. pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg, and cloves), and silk. • To spread Christianity. • The three G’s: – Gold – God – Glory The Age of Exploration • Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal – Began exploring the western and SW coasts of Africa. • Bartholomew Diaz – rounded the southern tip of Africa in 1488. The Age of Exploration • Christopher Columbus – Landed in San Salvador (Bahamas) on Oct. 12, 1492. – Three ships (Pinta, Nina, and the Santa Maria) – Believed he reached the East Indies (China). – Made four journeys to the “New World.” – Opened the New World to other European explorers. The Age of Exploration • John Cabot – Discovered Newfoundland (Canada) in 1497. The Age of Exploration • Vasca da Gama - Sailed around the continent of Africa and reached India in 1498. Opened a trade route with Asia. Age of Exploration • Ferdinand Magellan – First to reach Asia by sailing west. First person to sail around the entire globe. Spanish Exploration of the New World • Spain explores the Caribbean in search of wealth. – 1513 – Juan Ponce de Leon discovers Florida. – 1519 – Hernando Cortez lands in Mexico (defeats Aztecs by 1521). – 1533 Francisco Pizarro sets out for western South America (defeats the Incas by 1535). Hernando de Soto • Searched for gold. • 1539 – began exploring Florida (expedition involved over 600 men). • 1540 – entered SW Georgia near Albany. • De Soto’s group had superior weaponry (guns, crossbows, armor). • De Soto’s expedition was responsible for the death of thousands of Native Americans. – Due to warfare, but primarily from disease (measles, smallpox, influenza). • Never found gold. Hernando de Soto Spanish Explorers Impact of Spanish Exploration • Europeans brought tools, goods, and diseases that would change Native Americans’ way of life forever. • Horses and Guns were important because: – They helped Europeans travel large areas. – Helped with trade. – Helped conquer people. • Begins slavery in the Americas. • The spread of diseases killed thousands of Native Americans. Early Spanish Missions • Believed it was their duty to spread Christianity/Catholicism. • Mission – a settlement formed by a church in a foreign country to spread its faith. • Missionary – someone sent by a church to a foreign country to spread its faith. To teach others how to become “civilized.” • Early Spanish missions were built in the barrier islands off coast of GA. • Native Americans used the missions to learn English, trade, and negotiate. Exit Questions • 1. What country did Columbus sail for? • 2. Why did Columbus call the Native Americans Indians? • 3. What were the three reasons for Spanish Exploration? • 4. Who was first European to explore Georgia? • 5. What were the diseases that killed the Native Americans during De Soto’s expedition? Reasons for English Exploration • Refugees for Protestants • Spread Christianity (Protestantism) to Indians • Mercantilism (a policy that England should export more than it imports) Reasons for French Exploration • To find new trading partners • Spread Catholicism • Explored the Northern Coast/Canada • Explored Ohio river valley New World/Old World Exchange • New World – Potatoes – Sweet Potatoes – Peanuts – Turkey – Yams – Pumpkin – Corn – Chocolate • Europe – Horses – Rye – Radishes – Beets – Sugar cane – Rice – Peaches – Wheat – Chickens – Pigs – Oxen – Sheep – Goats – Cattle – alcohol • 1. What is the number one reason for the Spanish Missions? • 2. What religion are the Spanish? • 3. What is mercantilism? • 4. Name 3 things that Europe exchanged to the New World. Name 3 things that the New World exchanged to Europe?