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Transcript
The gradual decline of the Roman Empire
ushered in an era of European history
called the Middle Ages, or the medieval
period. It spanned the years from about
500 to 1500. During these centuries, a new
society slowly emerged. It had roots in: (1)
the classical heritage of Rome, (2) the
beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church, and
(3) the customs of various Germanic tribes.
Invasions of Western Europe
Repeated invasions
and constant warfare
caused a series of
changes that altered the
economy, government,
and culture.
Downfall of
Cities!
With the fall of the
Roman Empire, cities
were abandoned as
centers of
administration.
Disruption
of Trade!
The breakdown of
trade destroyed Europe’s
cities as economic
centers. Money
became scarce.!
Population Shifts
As Roman centers of
trade and government
collapsed, the population
of western Europe
became mostly rural.
Invasions of Western Europe
Among
Romans the level
of learning sank
sharply as more and
more families left
for rural areas.
Few people
except priests
and other church
officials were
literate.
The Germanic
tribes had a rich oral
tradition of songs and
legends. But they had
no written
language.
As Germanspeaking peoples
mixed with the Roman
population, Latin
changed.
Different dialects
developed as new
words and phrases
became part of
everyday speech.
French,
Spanish,
Portuguese,
Italian etc.
The
development of
various languages
mirrored the continued
breakup of a onceunified empire.
Germanic Kingdoms Emerge
Small
Germanic
kingdoms replaced
Roman
provinces.
The Church
as an institution
survived and
provided order
and security.
The entire
concept of
government
changed.
Loyalty to public
government and
written law had
unified Roman
society.
Germanic
peoples lived in
small communities
that were governed
by unwritten rules
and traditions.
The Germanic
stress on personal
ties made it impossible
to establish orderly
government for
large territories.
Every Germanic
chief led a band of
warriors who had
pledged their loyalty
to him.
Germanic Kingdoms Emerge
In the
Roman province
of Gaul, a Germanic
people called the
Franks held power.
Their leader was
Clovis.
The strategic
alliance between
Clovis’s Frankish
kingdom and the Church
marked the start of a!
partnership between
two powerful
forces.
After winning a battle
Clovis and 3,000 of his
warriors asked a bishop to
baptize them.
The Church in
welcomed Clovis’s
conversion and
supported his military
campaigns against other
Germanic peoples.
Clovis united the Franks
into one kingdom.
Germans Adopt Christianity
The Church,
with the help of
Frankish rulers,
converted many
Germanic
peoples.
Missionaries
also spread
Christianity.
The fear of
coastal attacks by
Muslims also spurred
many people to
become
Christians.
The Church built
religious
communities called
monasteries.
An Italian monk
named Benedict
began writing a book
describing a strict yet
practical set of rules
for monasteries
Illuminated
manuscripts
preserved at least
part of Rome’s
intellectual
heritage.
Benedict’s
sister, Scholastica
headed a convent and
adapted the same rules
for women.
(Convents)
Germans Adopt Christianity
Monasteries
and convents
became Europe’s
best-educated
communities.
Germans Adopt Christianity
In 590,
Gregory I, also
called Gregory the
Great, became
pope.
Under
Gregory, the
papacy also
became a secular,
or worldly, power
involved in
politics.
After the
Roman Empire
dissolved, small
kingdoms sprang
up all over
Europe.
This idea of a
churchly kingdom,
ruled by a pope,
would be a central
theme of the Middle
Ages.
He used
church revenues to
raise armies, repair
roads, and help the poor.
He also negotiated
peace treaties with
invaders.
Germans Adopt Christianity
The Franks
controlled the
largest and strongest
of Europe’s
kingdoms.
He
extended the
Frank’s reign and
defeated Muslim
raiders from Spain at
the Battle of Tours
in 732.
If the
Muslims had won,
western Europe might
have become part of the
Muslim Empire. This
victory made him a
Christian hero.
According
to him, the region
from Italy to England
and from Spain to
Germany fell under
his responsibility.
Charles Martel
passed on his power
to his son, Pepin the
Short, who cooperated
with the pope.
By 700
Charles Martel,
the major domo of
the palace, had
become the most
powerful person in
the Frankish
kingdom.
In
exchange, the
pope anointed him
“king by the grace of
God.” Thus began
the Carolingian
Dynasty,
Charlemagne becomes Emperor
Pepin
was
succeeded by
his 2 sons:
Carloman and
Charles
This event
signaled the joining
of Germanic power,
the Church, and the
heritage of the
Roman Empire.
A pope had
claimed the
political right to
confer the title
“Roman Emperor”
on a European
king.
When Carloman
died, Charles the
Great or Charlemagne
became sole ruler. His
reign lasted 47
years.
He built
an empire
greater than any
known since
ancient Rome.!
He had become
the most powerful
king in western
Europe.
Pope Leo III
crowned
Charlemagne
emperor.
Charlemagne becomes Emperor
Charlemagne
strengthened his
royal power by
limiting the
authority of the
nobles.
He sent out royal
agents that made
sure that the powerful
counts, governed
their counties
justly.
To encourage
learning. He opened a
palace school and
ordered monasteries to
open schools to train
future monks and
priests.
He crowned his
son, Louis the Pious,
as emperor. He was a
devoutly religious man
but an ineffective ruler.!
He had 3 Sons.
They
signed the
Treaty of Verdun,
dividing the empire
into three
kingdoms.
As a result
the kings lost
power and central
authority broke
down.
The lack of
strong rulers led
to a new system of
governing:
feudalism.
S U M M A R I Z I N G
The gradual decline
of the Roman Empire
ushered in an era of
European history
called the Middle
Ages.
Invasions and warfare
caused a series of
changes that altered
the economy,
government, and
culture.
Among Romans
the level of
learning sank
sharply.
The concept of
government
changed. Written
law gave way to
personal ties.
Clovis united the
Franks into one
kingdom and
germans adopted
christianity.
A strategic
partnership between
the political and
religious powers
began.
Charles Martel
defeated Muslim
raiders from
Spain at the
Battle of Tours
Charlemagne
built an empire
greater than any
known since
ancient Rome.
His sons signed the
Treaty of Verdum
and lack of a strong
leader gave way to
feudalism.