* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
The gradual decline of the Roman Empire ushered in an era of European history called the Middle Ages, or the medieval period. It spanned the years from about 500 to 1500. During these centuries, a new society slowly emerged. It had roots in: (1) the classical heritage of Rome, (2) the beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church, and (3) the customs of various Germanic tribes. Invasions of Western Europe Repeated invasions and constant warfare caused a series of changes that altered the economy, government, and culture. Downfall of Cities! With the fall of the Roman Empire, cities were abandoned as centers of administration. Disruption of Trade! The breakdown of trade destroyed Europe’s cities as economic centers. Money became scarce.! Population Shifts As Roman centers of trade and government collapsed, the population of western Europe became mostly rural. Invasions of Western Europe Among Romans the level of learning sank sharply as more and more families left for rural areas. Few people except priests and other church officials were literate. The Germanic tribes had a rich oral tradition of songs and legends. But they had no written language. As Germanspeaking peoples mixed with the Roman population, Latin changed. Different dialects developed as new words and phrases became part of everyday speech. French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian etc. The development of various languages mirrored the continued breakup of a onceunified empire. Germanic Kingdoms Emerge Small Germanic kingdoms replaced Roman provinces. The Church as an institution survived and provided order and security. The entire concept of government changed. Loyalty to public government and written law had unified Roman society. Germanic peoples lived in small communities that were governed by unwritten rules and traditions. The Germanic stress on personal ties made it impossible to establish orderly government for large territories. Every Germanic chief led a band of warriors who had pledged their loyalty to him. Germanic Kingdoms Emerge In the Roman province of Gaul, a Germanic people called the Franks held power. Their leader was Clovis. The strategic alliance between Clovis’s Frankish kingdom and the Church marked the start of a! partnership between two powerful forces. After winning a battle Clovis and 3,000 of his warriors asked a bishop to baptize them. The Church in welcomed Clovis’s conversion and supported his military campaigns against other Germanic peoples. Clovis united the Franks into one kingdom. Germans Adopt Christianity The Church, with the help of Frankish rulers, converted many Germanic peoples. Missionaries also spread Christianity. The fear of coastal attacks by Muslims also spurred many people to become Christians. The Church built religious communities called monasteries. An Italian monk named Benedict began writing a book describing a strict yet practical set of rules for monasteries Illuminated manuscripts preserved at least part of Rome’s intellectual heritage. Benedict’s sister, Scholastica headed a convent and adapted the same rules for women. (Convents) Germans Adopt Christianity Monasteries and convents became Europe’s best-educated communities. Germans Adopt Christianity In 590, Gregory I, also called Gregory the Great, became pope. Under Gregory, the papacy also became a secular, or worldly, power involved in politics. After the Roman Empire dissolved, small kingdoms sprang up all over Europe. This idea of a churchly kingdom, ruled by a pope, would be a central theme of the Middle Ages. He used church revenues to raise armies, repair roads, and help the poor. He also negotiated peace treaties with invaders. Germans Adopt Christianity The Franks controlled the largest and strongest of Europe’s kingdoms. He extended the Frank’s reign and defeated Muslim raiders from Spain at the Battle of Tours in 732. If the Muslims had won, western Europe might have become part of the Muslim Empire. This victory made him a Christian hero. According to him, the region from Italy to England and from Spain to Germany fell under his responsibility. Charles Martel passed on his power to his son, Pepin the Short, who cooperated with the pope. By 700 Charles Martel, the major domo of the palace, had become the most powerful person in the Frankish kingdom. In exchange, the pope anointed him “king by the grace of God.” Thus began the Carolingian Dynasty, Charlemagne becomes Emperor Pepin was succeeded by his 2 sons: Carloman and Charles This event signaled the joining of Germanic power, the Church, and the heritage of the Roman Empire. A pope had claimed the political right to confer the title “Roman Emperor” on a European king. When Carloman died, Charles the Great or Charlemagne became sole ruler. His reign lasted 47 years. He built an empire greater than any known since ancient Rome.! He had become the most powerful king in western Europe. Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor. Charlemagne becomes Emperor Charlemagne strengthened his royal power by limiting the authority of the nobles. He sent out royal agents that made sure that the powerful counts, governed their counties justly. To encourage learning. He opened a palace school and ordered monasteries to open schools to train future monks and priests. He crowned his son, Louis the Pious, as emperor. He was a devoutly religious man but an ineffective ruler.! He had 3 Sons. They signed the Treaty of Verdun, dividing the empire into three kingdoms. As a result the kings lost power and central authority broke down. The lack of strong rulers led to a new system of governing: feudalism. S U M M A R I Z I N G The gradual decline of the Roman Empire ushered in an era of European history called the Middle Ages. Invasions and warfare caused a series of changes that altered the economy, government, and culture. Among Romans the level of learning sank sharply. The concept of government changed. Written law gave way to personal ties. Clovis united the Franks into one kingdom and germans adopted christianity. A strategic partnership between the political and religious powers began. Charles Martel defeated Muslim raiders from Spain at the Battle of Tours Charlemagne built an empire greater than any known since ancient Rome. His sons signed the Treaty of Verdum and lack of a strong leader gave way to feudalism.