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Transcript
Biology 101 Final Exam Key Terms
Unit 1

Scientific method

Hypothesis

Theory

Covalent bond, polar covalent bond, nonpolar covalent bond, ionic bond, hydrogen bond,
and Van der Waals interactions

The properties of water

The four structures of a protein

The four biological molecules

Cell theory

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic differences and similarities

Endomembrane system

ALL the organelles

Kinetic and potential energy

Law of thermodynamics

Phospholipid bilayer

Fluid mosaic model (the components involved)

What is permeable: selective permeability

Passive and active transport (and its subcategories)

Endocytosis (all 3 types)

ALL steps and aspect of cellular respiration, including, but not limited to: equation,
glycolysis, citric acid, and ETC, NAD+ and NADH

Fermentation

Photosynthesis (steps, components, blah blah blah)

C4 and CAM plants and how they differ from “normal” plants
Unit 2

Mitosis and its steps (MAKE SURE YOU KNOW THE IMPORTANT THINGS THAT HAPPEN IN
EACH STEP!!!)

Three functions of cell division

The difference between “the cycle” InterphaseM phasecytokinesis

Difference between the terms chromatin, chromosomes, and chromatids (and when
each term is used in reference to mitosis)

Meiosis and the steps (FOCUS ON HOW THE CHROMOSOMES LOOK)

Homologous chromosome (when do they form?)

Independent assortment, random fertilization, and crossing over

Genetics, inheritance, traits

Punnett squares

Alleles (what dominant and recessive mean…BE CAREFUL! Dominant does not always
mean “most common” allele)

Genotype and phenotype

Punnett squares

Law of segregation and Law of independent assortment

Test cross

PUNNETT SQUARES!

Incomplete dominance, codominance, and pleiotropy

Polygenic inheritance

Pedigrees (make sure that you are comfortable interpreting these)

Autosomal recessive disorder (what it means to be a carrier) and autosomal dominant

X chromosome inactivation

X-linked recessive disorder

Hershey and Chase experiment

The structure of DNA and who discovered it

Nucleotide bases

Antiparallel strands

DNA replication (steps!)

RNA, mRNA, pre mRNA, and tRNA

Codon and anticodon

Reading frame

Transcription and translation

EPA site

MUTATIONS

Gene regulation in prokaryotes

Bacterial transcription

Lac I and Lac operon

Biotechnology

Genetic engeneering

Selective breeding

GMOs (and how they are made)

The role of bacteria and plasmid DNA in cloning

Genetic potential
Unit 3

Evolution

Idea of fixed species

Lyell and Lamarck (what did they find? How did it contribute to Darwin?)

3 of Darwin’s observations

2 of Darwin’s major points

Artificial selection

Natural selection

Adaptations

Fitness

Evidence of evolution

Genetic drift, gene flow, mutation, and natural selection (and the subcategories)

Directional selection, disruptive selection, and stabilizing selection

Steps of preserving genetic variation

Characteristics of plants

Plant traits shared with algal ancestors

Alternation of generations

Non vascular plant characteristics

Vascular seedless plant characteristics

Evolution of the seed

Angiosperms and gymnosperms

Plant defenses

Groups of chordates

Characteristics defining vertebrates

Fish groups

Tiktaalik (important characteristics that transitioned fish from water to land animals)

Amphibian groups

Reptile characteristics

Bird characteristics

3 types of mammals (classes)

Derived primate characteristics

Differences between new world and old world monkeys

Derived ape characteristics

Early hominins

Types of ecological study

Niche

Interspecies competition

Character displacement

Physical defenses of prey

Adaptations of predators

3 types of commensalism

Keystone species

Producers, consumers and decomposers

Trophic levels

Food web

3 types of pyramids
Unit 4

Recognize Tinbergen’s four questions

Proximate vs. ultimate

Fixed action pattern

Types of communication

Innate behaviors vs learned behaviors

Associative learning

Reproductive behaviors

Sexual dimorphism

Parental care options

Altruistic behaviors

Development of organisms with cell differentiation and gene expression

Apoptosis

Pattern formation

Bicoid gene (morphogen)

Evo-devo

Cave fish vs surface fish (similar) examples

Options for dealing with failure of body parts

How to grow a new organ

Stem cells

Steps to regenerate limbs and such

Two main types of stem cells

Pros and cons of stem cells

iPS cells

Types of cancer

Oncogenes and tumor suppressors

Ras mutations

Chromosome translocation

Immune system is able to facilitate recovery

Pathogen

Innate vs acquired immunity

First line of defense and second line

Cell defenses against illness

Lymphocytes

B cells and T cells

Adaptive immunity properties

Humoral and cell-mediated responses

Vaccines