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Please grab ONE globe
 Grab a piece of
scrap paper
 Divide the
blank page into
2 boxes
Also grab
ONE globe
per table
 Now try to pretend that you DON’T
already know that it is EARTH
 If you were an alien from the Planet
Halite then what OBSERVATIONS
and INFERENECES would you
make about this new planet?
 I’m rushing you…..
 crust
 the thin and solid outermost layer of
Earth above the mantle
 mantle
 in Earth science, the layer of rock
between Earth's crust and core
 core
 the central part of Earth below the
mantle; also the center of the sun
 lithosphere
 the solid, outer layer of Earth that
consists of the crust and the rigid upper
part of the mantle
 asthenosphere
 the solid, plastic layer of the mantle
beneath the lithosphere; made of mantle
rock that flows very slowly, which allows
tectonic plates to move on top of it
 mesosphere
 solid mantle rock located below the
 atmosphere
 a mixture of gases that surrounds a
planet, moon, or other celestial body
 hydrosphere
 the portion of Earth that is water
 geosphere
 the mostly solid, rocky part of Earth;
extends from the center of the core to the
surface of the crust
 biosphere
 the part of Earth where life exists;
includes all of the living organisms on
 rotation
 the spin of a body on its axis
 revolution
 the motion of a body that travels around
another body in space; one complete trip
along an orbit
 perihelion
 in the orbit of a planet or other body in
the solar system, the point that is closest
to the sun
 aphelion
 in the orbit of a planet or other body in
the solar system, the point that is
farthest from the sun
 equinox
 occurs twice a year (around 20 March and
22 September), when the plane of the
Earth's equator passes the center of the
Sun. At this time the tilt of the Earth's
axis is inclined neither away from nor
towards the Sun.
 solstice
 the point at which the sun is as far north
or as far south of the equator as possible
 Make a list of all of the THEORIES
or HYPOTHESIS that you have
heard concerning the formation of
our planet EARTH (if you can
EXPLAIN them, please do)
 Are you wanting to
build a bridge for
the Bridge contest?
I need to know
 Grab your Unit 4
 P. 1 Preassessment
 P. 2
 What do we call the most widely
accepted hypothesis for how our
solar system formed?
What is a
 In the 1600s and 1700s many scientists
thought that the sun formed first and
threw off the materials that later
formed the planets. In 1796, a French
mathematician named Pierre-Simon
Laplace, formed a hypothesis that is
now known as the nebular hypothesis.
Nebular hypothesis:
 The young solar nebula begins to
collapse because of gravity.
 As the solar nebula rotates, it
flattens and becomes warmer near
its center.
 Planetesimals begin to form within
the swirling disk.
 As planetesimals grow, their
gravitational pull increases. The
largest planetesimals begin to
collect more of the gas and dust of
the nebula.
 Small planetesimals collide with
larger ones, and the planets begin
to grow
 The excess dust and gas is gradually
removed from the solar nebula,
which leaves planets around the
sun and thus creates a new solar
 What do we call the most widely
accepted hypothesis for how our
solar system formed?
The Nebular
 Cosmic Address
 Cosmos: 3:54 in
 It is hypothesized that Earth was
very hot when it first formed. Some
evidence shows that there were 3
main sources of heat.
 Let’s demonstrate the 1st one….
1. Collisions of planetesimals-impact creates
2. Outer layers beginning to compresspressure increasing temperature
3. Radioactive materials emitting high-energy
particles-when surrounding rocks absorbed
the particles, the energy of the particles’
motion led to higher temperatures.
 Chapter 2 Section 1
 Chapter 26 Section 2
 As earth developed, denser
materials such as iron sank to the
center, less dense materials were
forced to the outer layers, this is
called differentiation.
 Differentiation caused Earth to
form distinct layers
 Inner core- solid and composed mostly
of iron and nickel
 Outer Core- liquid and composed
mostly of iron and nickel
 Mantle-thick layer of iron and
magnesium rich rock; composed of
three individual zones
 Lithosphere- the crust and upper
part of the mantle, it is thin and
 Asthenosphere-because of
enormous heat and pressure it is
“slushy” The crust is able to move
about on the asthenosphere
 Mesosphere-lower layer of the
mantle-thought to be solid
Crust- silica rich rock; beneath
the ocean is called oceanic
crust, beneath the continents is
called continental crust
 the lower boundary of the crust,
named after its discover is called
the Mohorovičić discontinuity, or
Where do you think the
thickest continental crust is
What part of
Earth’s Crust is
the Thickest?
How is it that scientists have
been able to determine the
composition of the layers?
 The Kola Superdeep Borehole on the Kola
peninsula of Russia reached 12.262 km
(~7.62 mi) and is the deepest penetration
of the Earth's solid surface.
 Humans have drilled down 2.1 km (~1.3
mi) into the seafloor
 Because the continental crust is about 45
km thick on average, whereas oceanic
crust is 6-7 km thick, humans have
penetrated only the upper 25-30% of both
 Layers of the Earth video
 Grab your UNIT 4 PACKETS
 Earth is the only known planet in
the solar system that has liquid
water and an atmosphere that
contains a large proportion of
 Only planet known to support life.
 Earth is the third planet from the
 It is hypothesized that Earth is
around 4.6 billion years old.
 What info have they used to determine
 Made mostly of rock.
 Approximately 71% of the surface is
covered by water.
 The shape of the Earth is not a
perfect sphere it is an oblate
spheroid, a slightly flattened
 Draw it in the space below.
 The fast spinning of the Earth on
its axis makes the polar regions
flatten and the equatorial zone
Quick Video
 Earth’s circumference from pole to
pole is 40,007 km (24,859 miles);
equatorial circumference is 40,074
km (24,901 miles).
 Illustrate this.
 So….How fast is the Earth spinning?
Are you able to list and describe
the layers of the Earth?
 The difference between the height
of the tallest mountain and the
depth of the deepest ocean trench
is about 20 km (12.4 miles).
 Illustrate
What’s the
Why do we
appreciate the
magnetic field?
 Earth has 2 magnetic poles.
 The lines of force of the magnetic
field extend between the North
geomagnetic pole and the South
geomagnetic pole.
 The magnetic field extends beyond
the atmosphere and affects a region of
space called the magnetosphere
 It is hypothesized that the source may
be from the liquid iron in the Earth’s
outer core. The motions within the
core produce electric currents that in
turn create the magnetic field
 Scientists have learned that the Sun
and Moon also have a magnetic field,
the Sun contains little iron and the
Moon does not have a liquid outer
core. What questions could this raise?
 Below, draw a picture to represent
Earth’s magnetic field.
Why do we
appreciate the
magnetic field?
 Earth’s Basics, Magnetism, and
Gravity Part II
Earth Science Notes
Unit 1: Studying the Earth
Now for a video Short
 Gravity is the force of attraction
that exists between all matter in
the universe.
 Isaac Newton was the first to
explain the phenomenon of gravity.
 Law of gravitation says the force of
attraction between any two objects
depends on the masses of the
objects and the distance between
the objects.
 F is the force between the masses,
 G is the gravitational constant, (G is
approximately equal to 6.674×10−11 N
m2 kg−2)
 m1 is the first mass,
 m2 is the second mass, and
 r is the distance between the centers
of the masses.
 Calculate the gravitational force
between the EARTH and the
 You MUST show your WORK.
 The larger the masses of the two
objects and the closer together they
are, the greater the force of gravity.
Are mass and weight
the same thing?
 Weight is the measure of the
gravity on an object. The newton
(N) is the SI unit used to measure
weight. In Good ole USA we use
 The mass is the amount of matter
in an object.
 What is matter?
 The mass of an object does not
change based on location, weight
does. An objects weight depends
on its mass and its distance from
the center of the Earth.
 You may weigh less if you change
your location on the
Earth…..WOW, really Mrs. M?
How does that happen?
 Draw a picture below that illustrates
this concept.
Before Take off
At 20,000 feet
 Describe the size and shape of
 Describe the compositional and
structural layers of Earth’s interior.
 Identify the possible source of
Earth’s magnetic field.
 Summarize Newton’s law of
The next part
you will do on
your own…
sphaira means “ball”-sphere
Atmos means “vapor”
Hydro means “water”
Geo means “earth”
Bios means “life”
 How are ALL of the spheres interacting?