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Parts of Speech Review We will spend a very brief amount of time reviewing parts of speech. Here are simple definitions of the eight parts of speech: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Noun – person, place, thing, or idea Verb – show action or a state of being Pronoun- take the place of a noun Adjective – modify nouns or pronouns. They tell which, whose, what kind, how many. Adverbs – modify verbs, adjectives or other adverbs. They tell how, when, where and how much. Prepositions – show a relationship between its object and another word in the sentence. Conjunctions – join words, phrases and clauses. Interjections – exclamatory word that shows feeling/emotion Here are some examples/explanations to help refresh your memory about the eight parts of speech: 1. Nouns – child, Chicago, computer, honesty, happiness Nouns can be common (not capitalized) or proper (capitalized). They can sometimes be singular (girl) or plural (girls) Nouns function in many ways. Most commonly we think of them as the subject of a sentence, but they can also be the direct object, a complement, an object of the preposition, or an indirect object. 2. Verbs – carried, walks, read, is, played, were, spoke, came Verbs tell what the subject of the sentence does, says, thinks or feels. Verbs that indicate a state of being rather than an action are called “to be” verbs. They are words like: is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been, has, have, had. Verbs show time, which is called tense. Present, past and future are types of verb tense. 3. Pronouns – he, she, they, it, hers, ourselves, theirs Pronouns can be possessive (mine, yours, ours) or reflexive (myself, himself, yourselves). Pronouns can be singular(I, you, she, it) or plural (we, you, they, them) 4. Adjectives – ugly, funny, big, round, loose Some less obvious examples are that dog, her bone, enough food, every room. These are adjectives because they describe the noun. Adjectives can tell the color (blue, green), quality (honest, confident), size (enormous, tiny), emotion(sad, nervous), or number (one, sixty-three). Adjectives can also be demonstrative (this close, these markers). Sometimes adjectives look like action verbs (interesting, boring, exciting). Adjectives can show an observation (expensive), size (big), shape (square), age (antique), color (teal), origin (Italian), material (silk), or be a qualifier (hunting cabin). 5. Adverbs – usually answer the questions when, where and how. When – It snowed yesterday. He is coming soon. Where – We are marching forward. Bob is walking downstairs. How – Tom jogs slowly. It was raining hard. Adverbial phrases can show the manner (impatiently), place (in the pool), frequency (every morning), time (before supper), and purpose (to keep in shape). 6. Prepositions – can show direction, place and time. A prepositional phrase is the preposition plus the object of the preposition. Direction – to the store (to = preposition; the store = object) Place – in the hall (in = preposition; the hall = object) Time – at lunchtime (at = preposition; lunchtime = object) 7. Conjunctions – There are two kinds of conjunctions: coordinating and subordinating. Coordinating – connects words, phrases or clauses (and, but neither/nor, not only/but also, however) Subordinating – introduces subordinate clause and connects it to the main clause (who, which, that, although) 8. Interjections (Oh! Alas! Wow! Darn! Holy Cow!) Interjections have no grammatical function in the construction of a sentence. When labeling the parts of speech in a sentence, use the following abbreviations: Noun = N Verb = V Pronoun = PRO Adjective = ADJ Adverb = ADV Preposition = PREP Conjunction = CONJ Interjection = INT Please be sure to use all capital letters.