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Transcript
Answer Key
Skills Worksheet
Chapter Review – Chapter 10
USING KEY TERMS
1. In your own words, write a definition for each of the following terms:
abrasion and soil texture.
Abrasion is the grinding and wearing away of rock surfaces through the
mechanical action of other rock and sand particles.
Soil texture is the soil quality that is based om the proportions/different
sizes of soil particles.
2. Use each of the following terms in a separate sentence: soil conservation and
erosion.
Soil conservation can help ensure that there will be enough fertile soil in
which to plant crops.
Erosion may occur if soil is not covered with vegetation.
For each pair of terms, explain how the meanings of the terms differ.
3. mechanical weathering and chemical weathering
Mechanical weathering is the breaking down of rock by physical means.
Chemical weathering is the process by which rocks break down as a result
of a chemical reaction.
4. soil and parent rock
Soil is a mixture of organic material, water, minerals, and air that support
the growth of vegetation.
Parent rock is the rock formation that is the source of the mineral
fragments in the soil.
UNDERSTANDING KEY IDEAS
Multiple Choice
D_____ 5. Which of the following processes is a possible effect of water?
a. mechanical weathering
b. chemical weathering
c. abrasion
d. All of the above
A____ 6. In which climate would you find the fastest rate of chemical
weathering?
a. a warm, humid climate
b. a cold, humid climate
c. a cold, dry climate
d. a warm, dry climate
Original content Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.
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Chapter Review continued
C____ 7. Which of the following properties does soil texture affect?
a. soil pH
b. soil temperature
c. soil consistency
d. None of the above
C_____ 8. Which of the following properties describes a soil’s ability to supply
nutrients?
a. soil structure
b. infiltration
c. soil fertility
d. consistency
D____ 9. Soil is important because it provides
a. housing for animals.
b. nutrients for plants.
c. storage for water.
d. All of the above
D_____ 10.Which of the following soil conservation techniques prevents erosion?
a. contour plowing
b. terracing
c. no-till farming
d. All of the above
Short Answer
11. Describe the two major types of weathering.
Mechanical weathering is the breaking down of rock by physical means.
Chemical weathering is the process by which rocks break down as a result
of a chemical reaction.
12. Why is Devil’s Tower higher than the surrounding area?
Devil’s tower is higher than the surrounding area because the less
resistant rock surrounding the volcano weathered faster than the more
resistant rock of Devils Tower.
13. Why is soil in temperate forests thick and fertile?
Soil in temperate forests experience high rates of weathering, which
increases the rate of soil production.
14. What can happen to soil when soil conservation is not practiced?
Soil can be eroded or damaged if soil conservation is not practiced.
Without fertile soil, vegetation could not grow.
_______________________________________________________________
Original content Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.
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Weathering and Soil Formation
Chapter Review continued
15. Describe the process of land degradation.
Land degradation is the overuse of soil to the point where it loses its
nutrients. Plants are not able to grow in the soil without nutrients.
Without plants, water cannot be held and cycled, and the area becomes a
desert.
16. How do cover crops help prevent soil erosion?
By planting a cover crop, you will protect the soil from wind, rain, and
other agents of erosion,.
CRITICAL THINKING
17.Concept Mapping Use the following terms to create a concept map:
weathering, chemical weathering, mechanical weathering, abrasion, ice
wedging, oxidation, and soil.
Original content Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.
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Chapter Review continued
18. Analyzing Processes Heat generally speeds up chemical reactions. But
weathering, including chemical weathering, is usually slowest in hot, dry
climates. Why?
Hot, dry climates generally have less precipitation than more temperate
climates. Moisture enables chemical weathering to occur more quickly.
The lack of moisture inhibits all processes of mechanical weathering
except abrasion.
19. Making Inferences Mechanical weathering, such as ice wedging, increases
surface area by breaking larger rocks into smaller rocks. Draw conclusions
about how mechanical weathering can affect the rate of chemical weathering.
Mechanical weathering increases the surface area of rock, which exposes
more of the rock to the effects of chemical weathering and increases the
rate of weathering.
20. Evaluating Data A scientist has a new theory. She believes that climates that
receive heavy rains all year long have thin topsoil. Given what you have
learned, decide if the scientist’s theory is correct. Explain your answer.
The scientist’s theory is correct because heavy rain will leach the nutrients
out of the soil, which will make the topsoil thin.
21. Analyzing Processes What forms of mechanical and chemical weathering
would be most common in the desert? Explain your answer.
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
22. Applying Concepts If you had to plant a crop on a steep hill, what soil
conservation techniques would you use to prevent erosion?
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
23. Making Comparisons Compare the weathering processes in a warm, humid
climate with those in a dry, cold climate.
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Original content Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.
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Weathering and Soil Formation
Chapter Review continued
INTERPRETING GRAPHICS
The graph below shows how the density of water changes when temperature
changes. The denser a substance is, the less volume it occupies. In other words, as
most substances get colder, they contract and become denser. But water is unlike
most other substances. When water freezes, it expands and becomes less dense.
Use the graph below to answer the questions that follow.
24. Which has the greater density: water at 40ºC or water at –20ºC?
_______________________________________________________________
25. How would the line in the graph look if water behaved like most other liquids?
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
26. Which substance would be a more effective agent of mechanical weathering:
water or another liquid? Why?
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Original content Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.
Holt Science and Technology
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Weathering and Soil Formation