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Transcript

Chapter 6-Electronic Structure of Atoms Key Concepts: -The atoms of each element have unique structures arising from interactions between electrons and the nucleus. -Atoms are so small that they are difficult to directly study. Atomic models are constructed to explain collections of experimental data. Background: -Explain the History of the Atom -The Shell Model……………….. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 6.1 The Wave Nature of Light 1. What is the electromagnetic spectrum? 2. What is the relationship between wavelength and frequency? 3. Using the equation below, solve the following: v= c v = frequency 8 c = speed of light (3.00 x 10 m/sec) = wavelength a. What is the wavelength of a radiation whose frequency is 1.50 x 10 b. What is the frequency of a wavelength 6.60 x 10 -5 m? 13 -1 sec ? Section 6.2: Quantized Energy- Photons 1. Max Planck: Define quantum. 2. Using the equation below, calculate the following. E= h x v E = energy(absorbed or emitted) h = Planck’s constant(6.63 x 10 v = frequency -34 J) a. What is the energy of a photon whose frequency is 6.00 x 10 14 -1 sec ? b. What is the energy of a light wave with a wavelength of 8.00 x 10 -5 m? 3. What is the relationship between energy and frequency? 4. Einstein: Describe the photoelectric effect -What can be used to determine this “sufficient” energy? 5. What is the significance of Einstein’s equation of E = mc 2 6. Dual Nature of Light: Light has the properties of both a _______________ and a __________________. 7. Louis de Broglie: Relationship between mass and wavelength a. Calculate the wavelength in meters of an electron traveling at 1.24 x 10 7 m/sec. The mass of an electron is 9.11 x 10-28 g. 8. What is diffraction? Section 6:3 Line Spectra and the Bohr Model 1. What is the line-emission spectrum? 2. What is a continuous spectrum? 3. What is the difference between the ground and the excited state? 4. How does an electron go from its ground state to the excited state? 5. What happens when an electron moves from its excited state to its ground state? The Bohr Model 1. Explain the importance of a Mass Spectroscope to the study of the atom. 2. Describe the Bohr Model of the Atom. 3. What are the two most important points of the Bohr Model of the Atom? 4. Describe the Balmer Series and Lyman Series 5. Balmer-Rydberg Equation: 6:4 The Wave Behavior of Matter Explain DeBroglie’s equation Explain the Uncertainty Principle 6.5 Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Orbitals 1. What is the best basis for describing the energy interaction between protons and electrons in this model? 2. What is the theory for the position of electrons that is different from the simple Shell Model? 3. What other problems does this model address? Section 6.6 -6.8: Quantum Numbers 1. What is the purpose of electron configurations? Quantum Numbers 1. Principal Quantum Number 2. Angular Momentum Quantum Number Describe the different orbitals s: p: d: f: 3. Magnetic Quantum Number 4. Spin Quantum Number Define the Pauli Exclusion Principle: Electronic Structure of the Atom 1. How can Coulomb’s Law be used to explain the different ionization energies of electrons in an atom? 2. Describe the result of differences in energy between electrons in different orbitals in the same shell. 6:9 Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table 1. Define Aufbau Principle: 2. Define Hund’s Rule: Example: Neon 3. How is the periodic table used to predict electron configurations? 4. What are some exceptions with the pattern for electron configurations?