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How do ecologists estimate the total number of species present in the world?
Living organisms have very vast diversity on the Earth. An estimation by researchers says that it
is about seven millions. The total number of species present in the world is calculated by
ecologists. An ecologist uses the data of the species richness of a well studied group of insects of
temperate and tropical regions to make statistical comparison between species richness. Then,
these ratios are extrapolated with other groups of plants and animals to calculate the total species
Q. What is the significance of the slope of regression in a species — area relationship?
An species-area relationship can be fined by the slope of the line or regression coefficient. It
gives an estimate of species richness of area. It is independent of taxonomical category or type of
area studied. It has been found that in smaller areas (where the species-area relationship is
analyzed), the value of slopes of regression is similar regardless of the taxonomic group or the
region. However, when a similar analysis is done in larger areas, then the slope of regression is
much steeper.
Q. Among the ecosystem services are control of floods and soil erosion. How is this achieved by
the biotic components of the ecosystem?
Living organisms such as plants and animals come under the biotic components of an ecosystem.
The role of plants in controlling floods and soil erosion is very much important by holding the
soil particles together through root, thereby preventing the top layer of the soil to get eroded by
wind or running water. Ground water infiltration and prevention of floods is done because of soil
porosity which is done by the plants root. Hence, plants are able to prevent soil erosion and
natural calamities such as floods and droughts. They also increase the fertility of soil and