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Movement at the Hip Joint
• Superficial muscle of hip that forms flesh of
• Most important for extending hip when
power is needed
• Sacrum + iliac bones  gluteal tuberosity of
femur + iliotibial tract
Movement at the Hip Joint
• Ilium  Femur
• Hip abductor, steadies the pelvis for
• Site for intramuscular injections
• Maximus overlies the sciatic nerve
Movement at the Hip Joint
Iliacus and psoas major
Iliac bone lesser trochanter of femur
Prime mover of hip flexion
Keeps upper body from falling backwards
while standing
Movement at the Hip Joint
Form medial side of each thigh
Press the thighs together
Gravity does most of their work
Pelvis  femur (proximally)
Movement at the Knee Joint
• Posterior thigh
• Biceps femoris, semimembranosus,
• Ischial Tuberosity  Proximal Tibia
• Prime movers of thigh extension and knee
• Butchers use tendons to hang hams for
Movement at the Knee Joint
• Most superficial thigh muscle, thin, and
• Anterior iliac crest  Medial side of Tibia
• Weak thigh flexor
• “Tailor’s muscle”*
Movement at the Knee Joint
• 1 rectus femoris & 3 vastus muscles form
anterior thigh
• Femur
+ Pelvis  Tibial
Tuberosity by patellar ligament
• Extend the knee powerfully
• Rectus femoris helps flex hip
• RF + Vastus lateralis  intramuscular
injections sites mostly for infants
Movement at the Foot & Ankle
• Superior muscle on anterior leg
• Upper tibia  tarsal bones
• Acts to dorsiflex and invert foot
Movement at the Foot & Ankle
• Lateral tibial condyle + proximal radius 
Phalanges 2-5 of foot
• Prime mover of toe flexion*
• Dorsiflexor of foot
Movement at the Foot & Ankle
• Longus, brevis, tertius in lateral part of leg
• Fibula  Metatarsals
• Plantar flex and evert foot
Movement at the Foot & Ankle
• Two-bellied muscle forms cruved calf of
posterior leg
• Two heads on each side of distal femur 
through Calcaneal/Achilles tendon  heel
• If tendon breaks walking is impaired, heel
cannot be lifted*
• Prime mover for plantar flexion
• “Toe dancer’s muscle”
Movement at the Foot & Ankle
• Fleshy muscle, strong plantar flexor
• Tibia and fibula  through
Calcaneal/Achilles tendon  heel
Lower Limb Muscles
Lower Limb Muscles
1. Which is the “tailor’s muscle”?
A. Ipsoas
C. Sartorius
B. Gastrocnemius
D. Rectus Femoris
2. The prime mover of toe flexion is?
A. Extensor Digitorum Longus C. Ipsoas
B. Tibialis Anterior
D. Fibularis
3. A patient’s calcaneus/achilles tendon is cut
during surgery, what will happen to him and why?
• Essentials of Human Anatomy, Ninth Edition
• University of Michigan Medical School
• Radiopaedia