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The Story of Ancient Greece
Geography of Greece
• Greece is a small
country in Europe.
• Greece is near the
Mediterranean Sea.
• The main part of
Greece in on a
• A peninsula is a body of
land surrounded by
water on three sides.
• The rest of Greece is
made up of islands.
Who were the ancient Greeks?
• Earliest Greek civilisations thrived nearly 4000 years
• Ancient Greeks lived in Greece and the countries
we now call Bulgaria and Turkey. (See Google
• Ancient Greece empire spread over Europe. Most
powerful between 2000 BC and 146 BC.
• Ancient Greece was split into many different states,
each one was ruled in its own way. Each state had
its own laws, government and money but they
shared the same language and religion. Two most
important states were Athens and Sparta.
Greek City-States
• As Greece is made up of many islands, and
has many tall mountains, the Greeks began
to build city-states instead of one country. 2
most important states were Athens and
• A city-state is a city with its own laws,
rulers, and money.
• City-states were cities that acted like
countries. They shared same religion and
How were they resourceful
and ingenious?
• Very little arable land or resources
– The Greeks traded wine and olives for
the timber needed for ships
• Soil by the sea was not so rich as on
the plains
– The Greeks used irrigation and crop
rotation to keep the soil relatively
• Sparta was a Greek city-state.
• Sparta was very powerful and had its own
• Sparta conquered other city-states to gain
wealth and power.
• There were three classes of people in
• Citizens, non-citizens, and slaves.
Sparta’s Classes
• Only men born in Sparta were citizens.
• Women were not allowed to become
citizens, however, women were allowed to
own land and businesses, which gave them
more freedom than other Greek city-states.
• The second class in Sparta was people who
came from other city-states or other
countries. They could own businesses but not
become citizens.
• The third class was slaves.
Sparta warriors
• Learning to read and write in Sparta was not
very important.
• Training to become a good soldiers was
• Young boys were taken from their parents
and trained to be soldiers as well as good in
sports such as running.
• Girls were also trained to be good in sports.
Spartan Warrior
• Athens was another important Greek citystate.
• The people of Athens wanted to rule
themselves and not have a king or queen.
• Athens became the world’s first democracy
around 508 B.C.
• A democracy is a government in which all
citizens can vote and have equal say in what
Democracy in Athens
• Athens was a democracy because all
citizens could vote, but only half the
people in Athens were citizens.
• Women, people born outside of
Athens, and slaves could not vote.
Ancient Greek Dressing
• Pericles was the leader
of creating democracy
in Athens.
• He had many buildings
• Pericles had the
Parthenon and the
Acropolis built.
Parthenon and
Education in Athens
• Education was very important in
• Boys went to school to learn to read
and write. They also learned many
• Girls were not allowed to go to school
or learn to play sports.
The Greek Alphabet
• The Greeks borrowed their alphabet from
the Phoenicians.
• Most European languages, including English
borrowed ideas from the Greek alphabet.
• Socrates was a
philosopher of Ancient
• A philosopher is
someone who tries to
explain the nature of
• Socrates taught by by
asking questions. This
method of questioning
is still called the
Socratic method.
• Plato was a student of
• He started a school
called The Academy.
• Plato’s writing took the
form of a dialogue
between teacher and
• Aristotle was
another Greek
philosopher and
student of Plato.
• He wrote about
science, art, law,
poetry, and
Alexander the Great
• Alexander the Great
was the son of King
Phillip II of Macedonia.
• Alexander conquered
Persia, Egypt, the
Middle East and
Northern India.
• He died at age 33 from
Alexander’s Empire
Achievement 1
• Describe it
The Olympics
Ancient Greeks began the tradition of
hosting Olympic Games in 776 B.C.
Dedicated to the gods of Olympus, the
games featured the best and brightest
athletes of all the cities in Greece. The
games took place every fourth year and were a
time of religious, political and democratic
How has it influenced
our lives today?
Now, the Olympics are held in different
countries every time. Also, in modern
times, there are winter and summer
Olympics which each occur every 4
Achievement 2
• Describe it
The Greek armies were outnumbered
when the Persian army attacked. They
relied on local runner Pheidippides who
ran 450 km to seek help and warn local
leaders of impending attacks. He died as
he finished his last 41.8 km trek from
Marathon to Athens.
How has it influenced
our lives today?
Now, more than 500 marathons are
held throughout the world each year
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