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1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 21 23 24 25 Sex. Iuliō Caesare et L. Marciō Philippō consulibus: 91 BC. The issue of citizenship for Romeʻs Italian allies has long been simmering. In 91, a tribune of the plebs, M. Livius Drusus, attempted to pass great variety of reforms, favoring the Senate, the people and the Equites, and included a bill to extend citizen rights to the Italian allies. Livius lost the support of all element in Rome and was assasinated. Shortly thereafter, the Social War broke out. The Italians sought independence from Rome and had some initial successes against the Roman armies, but a combination of judicious grants of citizenship by Rome and military victories by C. Marius and L. Cornelius Sulla soon quelled the revolts, although fighting continued until 86 BC. cessō (1) to cease, stop, rest. obedirent = oboedirent. adserō, -ere, -uī, -tum, to lay hold of, claim, assume. perniciōsus, -a, -um, destructive, ruinious. admodum adv wholly, entirely, completely. Publius Rutilius Lupus: cos. 90 BC, he commanded the Northern front aginst the Marsi (his colleage L. Julius Caesar campaigned againt the Samnites in the south). Rutilius fell into a trap and was defeated and killed by the Marsic commander. He legate, C. Marius (hero of the Numidian and Cimbrian wars) extricated the army and remained in command. Caepio: Quintus Servilius Caepio the younger (pr. 91), was captured by the Italians and executed. Porcius Cato: L. Porcius Cato (cos. 89) died in battle against the Marsi near the Fucine Lake. C. Marius (cos. 107, 104, 103, 102, 101, 100, 86) took over command as proconsul of the Northern front against the Marsi with great success. Cn. Pompeius: Cn. Pompeius Strabo (cos. 89), father of Pompey the Great, commanded three legions on the Northern front and, with Marius, was instrumental in suppressing the Marsi and Picentes. L. Cornelius Sulla: (cos. 88, 80, dict. 81-80), he led the Southern armies against the Samnites. ēgregius, -a, -um, outstanding, surpassing excellent. ita . . . ut: in such a way that. fundō, -ere, fūdī, fūsum, to pour out; overthrow, rout. amittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missum, to lose. quādriennium, -ī n a four year period. calamitās, -ātis f loss, injury, damage. tractō (1) to drag violently; handle, manage, transact, perform. quintō annō: the fighting stretched into 86 BC, but the back of the resistance had been broken by 88 by Marius in the north and Sulla in the south. Sulla became consul in 88. strenuē: vigorously, strenuously. praetor: Sulla was praetor in 97 BC and served in the Social War as legatus pro praetore. sexentēsimō sexagēsimo secundō: 88 BC (Eutropius is counting from 751/750 BC). prīmum bellum cīvīle: the First Civil War broke out in 88 BC and continued until Sullaʻs return from the East in 82/81 BC. Sulla had been appointed to the war against Mithridates (who had taken advantage of Romeʻs troubles in the Social War to seize Asia and invade Greece), but Marius subborned the tribune P. Sulpicius Galba to pass a law transferrring the command to himself. Sulla marched on Rome from Campania with his six legions, captured the city, executed Galba (and a number of other opponents), and had himself reinstated to the command in the East. Marius escaped to Africa. commoveō, -ēre, -mōvī, -mōtum, to put into violent motion; rouse; produce (some grief). gestūrus: note the use of the future active participle as a virtual purpose clause. Achaia: Eutropius uses the term generally for Greece. paulisper adv for a short time. bellī sociālis: the war of the allies. Read with reliquiae. reliquiae, -ārum fpl remains, remainder. tolō, -ere, sustulī, sublātum, to raise, lift; remove. affectō (1) to grasp, pursue, aim at, strive after. dīmicō (1) to fight, struggle. prīmus: “he was the first who”. A common meaning of this adjective. fugō (1) to put to flight, drive away. ōrdinō (1) to set in order, regulate, order, arrange. Sulla arranged for the election of Cn. Octavius and L. Cornelius Cinna for the following year 87 BC. Mithridates: Mithridates VI the Great (134-63 BC), king of Pontus and Armenia Minor from c. 119 to 63 BC, was one of Rome's most formidable and successful enemies. He fought three wars against prominent Roman generals, 88-84 BC against Sulla, 83-81 BC against Murena, and 75-63 BC against Lucullus and Pompey. His death in 63 BC effectively ended resistance to Rome in the East. In 88 BC, taking advantage of Romeʻs distraction in the Social War, Mithridates invaded Asia (the Roman province in western Asia Minor), slew a large number of Roman citizens (Appian claims 80,000), and crossed with his army to Greece, where Athens and other Greek cities joined him. in circitū: “in its entire circuit”. An exaggeration. Mithridates realm included the Crimea and the surrounding shores and Colchis, as well on Pontus proper. Nicomedes: Nicomedes IV, king of Bithynia 94-74 BC. He beqeathed his kingdom to Rome upon his death. Bithyniā: ablative of separation with expellere. mandō (1) to commit to oneʻs charge, enjoin, order, command. Here, “informed” It governs the oratio obliqua se bellum inlaturum. eī: Nicomedes. 26 patior, -ī, passsum sum, to suffer, endure. Note the pluperfect with fuerat, a common usage. 27 quod: “that”. Note this form of oratio obliqua, common in vulgar and late Latin. Cappodocia: a kingdom on the Anatolian plateau. Eutropius simplifies a complex matter. Nicomedes and Mithridates had both supported claimants to the throne of Cappadocia in the mid-90s. Nicomedes invaded Capadocia and placed his candidae on the throne, whereupon Mithridates drove him out. Nicomedes appealed to the Roman Senate, which decreed that Mithridates evacutate Cappadocia and appointed its own candidate, Ariobarzanes, to the throne. Mithridates then attacked Nicomendes and had Tigranes of Armenia (his his son-in-law) invade and remove Ariobarzanes. Rome sent a legation in 90 BC, under Mn. Aquillius and Manlius Maltinus, who restored Nicomedes and Ariobarzanes to their kingdoms. Mithridates again invaded Cappadocia in 88 BC. 29 Paphlagoniam: a small kingdom between Bithynia and Pontus along the coast of the Black Sea. Pylaemenes: a king of Paphlagonia who fought for the Trojans in the Trojan War. 30 Ephesus: Ephesus had come under Roman control in 133 BC with the absorption of Pergamon. Ephesus welcomed Mithridatesʻ general Archelaus. 31 ubicumque: wheresoever. ūnō diē occīderentur: Appian put the figure at 80,000, discounted by modern historians. 32 Ariston: Mithridates convinced many cities in Greece, including Athens, that an alliance with him would help them to throw off the Roman yoke. After Archelaus turned over Delos to Athens, Ariston convinced the Athenians to ally with Mithridates. 35 Piraeus: the port of Athens. 36 Athēnās cēpit: 86 BC. Sulla then defeated Archelaus at Chaeroneia in Boeotia and later a relieving force at Orchomenus. Mithridates then sued for peace. 37 vix decem: the tale that only 10,000 survived is from Plutarch. supersum, -esse, -fuī, to be left, survive. 38 lectus, -a, -um, choose, elite, select. 39 commīsit: “engaged in battle”. 41 trīduum, ī n a space of three days. palūs, -ūdis f swamp. lateō, -ēre, -uī, to lie hidden. 43 Interim: Sulla spents the years 84 and 83 BC subduing the tribes north of Greece and Macedon. 44 partim . . . aliōs: “some . . . some”. in fīdem: “in surrender”. 45 aliter adv otherwise. sē datūrum: viz the peace. relinquō, -ere, -līquī, -lictum, to leave behind, abandon. The antecedent of quae. 46 colloquim: Sulla and Mithridates met at Dardanus near Troy in 85 BC to end the war. The regime in Rome, controlled by Sullaʻs enmies Marius and Cinna, had sent an army under C. Flavius Fimbria east which had retaken Asia and Bithynia. Sulla crossed in turn to Asia, whereupon Fimbriaʻs army deserted to him. Anxious to return to Rome, Sulla gave easy terms to Mithridates: abandonment of all his conquests (which Sulla and Fimbria had already taken back by force), surrender of Roman prisoners, provision of a 70 ship fleet to Sulla along with supplies, and payment of 2,000 (or 3,000) talents. In exchange, Mithridates was to keep his original kingdom and territory and regain the title "friend of the Roman people." 49 Marius: after Sullaʻs march on Rome in 88 BC, Marius had fled to Africa. He returned with troops in 87, burning for revenge. 50 Cornelius Cinna: L. Cornelus Cinna (cos. 87, 86, 85, 84) led the opposition to Sulla in Rome. His motives and allegiances (other than to himelf) are much debated. Soon after his election as consul in 87 bc, he fell out with his colleague Octavius, who eventually had him deposed form the consulship (a wholly illegal act). Cinna fled to the countryside to raise an army and joined with Marius returning from Africa. Together they subjected Rome to a regular siege and eventually took the city (after Mariusʻ capture of Ostia had cut off the grain supply). Marius, according to the ancient historians, filled the city with blood, slaughtering anyone who remotely supported Sulla, had signifiant wealth, or was a personal enemy of Marius. Cinna himself order the execution of Octavius. Marius and Cinna were elected consuls for 86 BC, but Marius died 17 days after entering his seventh consulship. Cinna controlled Rome until his death n 84 bc, but little is known of his activities. reparō (1) to restore, repair, renew, revive. ingressī: “having entered”. Recall the active native of perfect passive participles of deponent verbs. 52 prōscrībō, -ere, -scripsī, -scriptum, to proscribe, outlaw. Many senators fled to Sulla in the East, so that he had with him a “shadow” senate. ēvertō, -ere, ēversī, ēversum, to overturn, destroy. compellō, -ere, -pulsī, -pulsum, to drive forcefully, force., compel. 54 subveniō, -īre, -vēnī, -vetum + dat to come to help, assist, aid. traiciō, -ere, -īecī, -iectum, to throw over, cross over, transfer. 55 Norbānum et Scipio: L. Cornelius Scipio Asiagenus and C. Norbanus, the consuls of 83 bc levied armies of their own to stop Sulla. Norbanus was defeated by Sulla near Capua. Scipioʻs army deserted to Sulla. 58 dēditiō, -iōnis f surrender. 59 mutātī consules essent: Sulla returned from the East in 83 bc and spent the early part of the year defeating Norbanus and Scipio in the south. At Rome, new consuls were elected: C. Marius (son Marius) and Gn. Papirius Carbo (cos. 120, 84, 82), a strong supporter of the Cinnan regime. 61 urbem ingressus: Sulla entered Rome in 82 BC. 62 Praeneste: a town east of Rome. persequor, -ī, -secutus sum, to pursue. ad mortem conpūlit: Sulla defeated Marius the Youngerʻs army at Sacriportu and beseiged him in Praeneste. Marius committed suicide to avoid capture. pugnam . . . ad portm Collīnam: The Battle of the Colline Gate, fought on November 1, 82 BC, was the final battle by which Sulla secured control of Rome following the civil war against his rivals. The Samnites led by Pontius Telesinus attacked Sulla's army at the Colline Gate (Porta Collina) on the northeastern wall, and fought all night before being routed. M. Licinius Crassus won considerable glory by defeating the enemy on his wing and ultimately won Sulla the battle. The battle was swiftly followed by the execution of the Samnite prisoners within earshot of the senate house before Sulla addressed the senate (this was the last serious action ever fought by Samnite forces). 63 partis Mariānae: “of the Marian faction”. 65 dēdō, -ere, -didī, -ditum, to surrender, deliver. īnsatiābilis, -e, insatiable. īra, -ae f wrath. 66 Carbo: Carbo fought indecisively with Sulla near Clusium north of Rome and then was defeated with great loss in an attack on the camp of Sulla's general, Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius. Although he still had a large army and the Samnites remained faithful to him, Carbo was so disheartened by his failure to relieve Praeneste, where Marius the Younger had taken refuge, that he decided to leave Italy. He fled to Africa, then crossed to the small island of Pantelleria, where he was arrested, taken in chains before Gn. Pompeius Magnus at Lilybaeum in Sicly and put to death. 67 Cn. Pompeius: Pompey the Great (son of Pompeius Strabo, cos. of 89) had remained in Italy during the Marian/Cinnan regime. Raising a private army from his family lands in Picenum, he joined Sulla upon return and reovered Africa and Scily from Cinnan governers. His ruthlessness in executing his opponents earned him the name adulescens carnifex. 68 praeficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectum + dat to place in charge of, appoint to command of. 69 secundus ā: “second (only) to”. haberētur: “was considered”. Recall this common meaning of habeō. 70 triumphō (1) to celebrate a triumph. Sulla celebrated his triumph in January 81 BC. 71 tribuō, -ere, -uī, -ūtum, to bestow, confer, grant. 72 fūnestus, -a, -um, deadly, destructive. tractō (1) to drag violently; handle, manage, transact, perform.