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Social Studies 9 FINAL EXAM REVIEW – ANSWER KEY Chapter 1 Terms/People Renaissance: a time if great revival, or re-birth of art, literature and learning in Europe during the 14th to 16th Centuries, marking the transition from the medieval to the modern world. Reformation: a great religious movement in Europe during the 16th century to reform the Roman Catholic Church. Rural: Countryside. Urban: City. Martin Luther: A German religious reformer who nailed 95 thesis to the church door during the reformation. Tenant: a person who pays rent for the use of land to a landlord. Serf: a person attached to a lord’s land and required to give services to the lord. Ch. 1 Questions/Themes 1. Explain how the rise of king’s power helped shape society during the 1500-1600’s. The rise of Kings power helped lead to the creation of the concept of Divine Rights of Kings where the kings ruled over their people and countries with supreme authority and justified their actions by stating that this is what god wanted for them and their people. Due to this concept many revolutions have taken place which had created charters of rights for people that protected them as citizens and gave them more rights in society. Chapter 2 Terms/People Democracy: A government that is controlled by the people who live under it. Magna Carta: the Great Charter which guaranteed the English people certain civil rights. In 1215 it had signed away the King’s rights to nobles who started to form a parliament. Monarch: a king or queen. Constitutional Monarchy: a monarchy in which the monarch rules according to the constitution and laws of the nation. Absolute Monarch: A king, queen, emperor or empress with unlimited power. James I / VI: King of Scotland for 20 years before he became the King of England, he believed in Divine Rights of Kings and ruled more like a tyrant. Chapter 2 Terms/People Charles I: Father was James I, believed in Divine Rights of Kings, constantly needed money from Parliament and taxes, charged with Treason and executed. Petition of Rights: Parliament refused to give Charles money unless he signed this Petition of Rights however Charles dissolved parliament and ruled without them. Oliver Cromwell: Leader of the New Model Army, a Puritan who believed in the Parliaments cause, nicknamed Lord Protector. Civil War: A war within it owns country. Tyrant: a cruel and unjust ruler or person Blue laws: strict laws that outlawed pagan ceremonies such as Christmas, and forbade dancing, gambling, sports, and the theatre. Only the Pagans were happy with the blue laws and the rest of the people in England resented them. When Charles II came to power he overturned the blue laws. Ch. 2 Questions/Themes 1. Explain the concept of the Divine Rights of Kings. This concept was brought to England, from Scotland, by James VI and this term refers to a king, queen, emperor, empress who rules using unlimited power!!! So in simple terms, they do what they want and don’t worry about what other people need or want. Some Kings justified this by claiming that God had chosen them to rule. 2. Describe and explain the beliefs of the Puritans. The Puritans were a very large group Protestants who believed that Church services should be plain and simple. Everything that was extravagant was tied to the Roman Catholic Church, not the Protestant. They wore dark clothes and led very sober lives. They disapproved of drinking, gambling, and theater and believed that their lives should be devoted to God. 3. What was the result of the English Civil War? Charles was charged with Treason (going against himself) and then executed and then the Rump Parliament and Charles II took over, but they were both useless so Oliver Cromwell took over. He was unhappy with the dictatorship that Charles I and Charles II ruled under, however, in the end Cromwell ended up ruling like a dictator and when he died his son “tumble down dick” took over but was incapable of ruling. Therefore the monarchy was restored and Charles II came back to power. Chapter 3 Terms/ People: (French Revolution) Louis XVI : the extravagant sun king, ruled France for 72 years, loved to do ballet, married Marie Antoinette, lived in Versailles in extravagance, not prepared or ready to rule over France, eventually executed during the Reign of Terror. Robespierre: a leader of the French Revolution that helped create the Reign of Terror who had 40,000 people in France executed via the Guillotine. Bastille: a mob attacked the royal prison and fortress (Bastille) and captured it. The prisoners were all released; it showed that people were not afraid to go again King Louis. Tennis Court Oath: an event when the National Assembly was formed and then locked out of their meeting spot by the king, so they retreated to the Tennis Courts where they took an oath to pledge that they would continue to meet there until France had a new form of government. Chapter 3 Terms/ People: (French Revolution) Marie Antoinette: a member of the Austrian family who married Louis XVI as a political arrangement, she loved fine expensive things and had no interest in ruling over France; she was eventually executed during the Reign of Terror. Republican Government: a government in which all power rests with the citizens who vote to elect their leaders. Tariff (tithe): A tax that is paid to the lord or the king. Revolution: A change in power or organization that takes place over a period of time. Revolution takes place in many different forms and for many different reasons. Ch. 3 Questions/Themes 1. Explain how the tax system in France worked and describe all 3 estates. The 1st and 2nd Estates did not have to pay any taxes and all of the taxes where imposed upon the 3rd Estate (95%) who were generally quite poor and disliked the Absolute Monarchy. These people resented the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and the aristocrats because what they made or grew would go to the lords and kings as a tax called a “tithe”. 2. Explain the reasons why the French people started the revolution. France was in a bad financial state and in huge debt due to many wars they were involved in like the American Revolution. The king and queen led extravagant lives with many expenses The 1st 1nd 2nd estates did not pay any power and lived off of the taxes that the 3 rd estate were forced to pay which they found completely unfair. The people from the 3rd estate did not like having an absolute monarchy and with the rise of enlightenment and the spread of new ideas, people were inspired to make changes There was a huge shortage of food and unemployment for the people of the 3 rd estate. Ch. 3 Questions/Themes 3. Describe what life was like in France during the Reign of Terror. The Reign of Terror was a 10 month period of political executions during the bad phase of the revolution. Anyone suspected of not being supportive of the Revolution was executed without a fair trial. One could say that France was gripped by terror unleashed by Robespierre during this time as around 40,000 people were executed. 4. What was the importance of the Fall of Bastille? The fall of Bastille (July 1789) was a royal prison in the center of Paris. A mob of Sans-Cullottes (city people) attack it in defiance and released the prisoners. This was a symbolic event because it defied the absolute monarchy. Chapter 4 Terms/ People: (Napoleon) Napoleon: Came from a minor nobility family from Corsica, He was an excellent military leader, promoted to first counsel, then given the title Emperor, Married to Josephine Bonaparte, Very scholarly student and excelled quite quickly through school, created new civil laws. Napoleonic Code (Civil Code): it was a system of law that guaranteed rights of equality under the law, the right to hold property, freedom of religion, and freedom to pursue ones choice yet he took away women’s rights as he thought women were inferior. Continental System: Napoleon tried to stop Britain from trading with all other countries. He also forbade countries in his own empire from trading with Britain, therefore smuggling started to happen. Napoleon did not have control of the seas and therefore could not enforce this and eventually it ended up hurting everyone’s economies. Russian Campaign: In June of 1812, Napoleon began his fatal Russian Campaign. He entered Russia as the head of the largest army ever seen but his resources began to deplete as time went on, and his force began to decline. When Napoleon’s army arrived in Moscow, they found it to be depopulated and bereft of supplies. The soldiers had to feed on their own dead horses for food- as long as the meat didn’t freeze. Thousands of soldiers froze to death. Others deserted hoping to return to their homeland and while retreating they were attacked by Russians. In the end only 9,000 out of the 600,000 soldiers remained. The Grand Armee was no more. Napoleon abandoned his troops and returned to Pairs. Chapter 4 Terms/ People: (Napoleon) Italian Campaign: Napoleon promised Italians freedom in his 1797 from the Austrians so when France went to war with Austria, many people were happy. Napoleon won victories in Italy but his promise to free the Italians was overstated as he set up new French controlled republics and he drove out the Austrians. His army stole everything they could – paintings, jewellery, and valuables from ancient tombs. This is how he paid his army and made him very wealthy. Josephine Bonaparte: She was a style setter, uneducated, but clever and fascinating. She had been previously married with 2 children and her husband died during the Reign of Terror. She was arrested while trying to save her first husband and narrowly escaped. Then she was sent to a convent to support her two children on her own. Josephine met Napoleon in 1795. He fell instantly in love with her and they married in 1796. Josephine began to have affairs and their marriage became tense. In 1805, Napoleon realized that he needed a successor, but when Josephine failed to have a son, he divorced her. Josephine Bonaparte died in 1814. Duke of Wellington: Napoleon lost at the Battle of Waterloo to the British Duke of Wellington. Ch. 4 Questions/Themes 1. Explain how Napoleon gained power in France by 1799. Napoleon came onto the scene at the end of the turbulent period of the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror. He was at the right place at the right time when he got rid of the Directory and took over France. He was in a perfect position to take over because he had control over the army. Napoleon’s overthrew The Directory (military control over the country) in 1799. In 1799 he took control of France and appointed himself the First Consul Napoleon crowns himself the Emperor of France in 1804. He provided stability in a time of chaos. Napoleon rose to power quickly and had more control than anyone ever had over France. He also created new school systems, universities and hospitals 2. What were the countries that Napoleon controlled? Italy, Haiti, Austria, Prussia, Naples, Spain, Sweden, Germany, Holland. Ch. 4 Questions/Themes 3. Describe the Napoleonic Code and why it was important for France. The Napoleonic Code replaced old laws (feudal laws and then Civil Code) with the Napoleonic Code. In Napoleon’s Empire all countries all to follow the Napoleonic Code. They had to have religious tolerance, abolish serfdom, and abolish privileges of the aristocrats. 4. What was the main reason for the Congress of Vienna and what was the result of it? At the Congress of Vienna, all the countries who fought Napoleon, got together and remade the map of Europe. Britain got all of Frances colonies but France’s borders were kept intact. Chapter 5 Terms/People: (Industrial Revolution) James Hargreaves: Invented the spinning Jenny which spun wool in large amounts. Richard Arkwright: invented the water frame that spun yarn using rollers. Samuel Crompton: invented the mule that combined the best features of water Frame and the spinning jenny. Coal: closely linked to the cast iron industry as it is used to manufacture iron, and also used for transportation, a form of an energy source (heat) Steam: was used in engines to pump water out of mines and was then used in other machines and forms of transportation. Cotton: a main textile used to be turned into cloth and cloth products during the Industrial Revolution. Chapter 5 Terms/People: (Industrial Revolution) Cast Iron: cast iron was used for many items during this time. Workers (women and children): many women and children were the people who worked in the factories and mines in Britain during the industrial Revolution. They were willing to work for longer hours for a smaller amount of pay they were also able to move around and get into the equipment to fix it and pull out fibers that were caught in them. Trade guilds (labor unions): organizations devoted to improving conditions for their members. Test Act: An act forbidding anyone except members of the Church of England from holding political office or entering the professions Locomotive: a steam engine designed to pull cars on a railway Ch. 5 Questions/Themes 1. Describe what happened during the Agricultural Revolution. The enclosure movement forced small farm owners to sell their land and move to the cities, production was increased as there were more machines to do the work and less need for human labour, farming became a business for profits as with a growing population there were more mouths to feed, new breed saw higher profits for farmers. 2. What were some methods of increasing farm production? Farming became more mechanized with all of the new methods of inventions and technologies as farms were larger and therefore the use of commons was not used anymore (land that everyone used) 3. Explain what the Enclosure movement was and the positive and negative results from it. The enclosure movement was when all the small farmers had to sell their lands and farms as they could not compete with the large farm owners and plantations with high technology. These farmers ended up moving to the cities to find work as they were no longer going to continue farming. 4. What was causing the cities and population to rapidly increase during the 1880’s? The movement from the countryside to the cities and the agricultural revolution as there were more people and therefore more mouths to feed. Cities grew so rapidly due to people moving from the country sides to the cities to find work, transportation to travel from city to city, as well as a booming farming business to feed people, the jobs in factories were also generally located in or out of the cities and not in the rural areas. Ch. 5 Questions/Themes 5. List the industries and their main purposes during the Industrial Revolution. Textile Industry: cloth and cloth products from mainly sheep, silk worms and linen from flax. Steam Industry: dependent on the power source of steam, water had to pumped out of mines so the miners could work and the invention of the compressed steam engine allowed for this. Iron and Coal Industries: important for the industrial revolution and it began to grow much faster when the invention of the process for making better cast iron was invented. Coal and iron industries were closely linked together. The steam engine used coal which was important for power source. 6. Explain from start to end how the working conditions changed for workers.(Factory Acts) Factory owners would hire women and children at a cheaper rate than men so this would save them money and turn a higher profit. Women and children would work long hours, for little pay in dangerous conditions without any worker protection rights. Social reformers tried to improve the conditions for the people working in these factories by getting people to band together and form unions. 7. Which industry is considered the starting point of the industrial revolution? textiles were considered the starting point of the industrial revolution. Chapter 7 Terms/People: (First Nations Peoples) Myths: Myths are tales or traditions that seek to explain the place of humans in the universe and their origin, the nature of society, the relationship between the individual and the world, and the meaning of natural phenomena especially individual events Bering Land Bridge Theory: During the last ice-age Asia and North America were connected between Alaska’s Islands and Siberia/Russia across the Bering strait. The concept is that the First People crossed from Siberia using the Bering land bridge into North America by following herds of animal across this bridge. Nuclear family: a mother, a father, and their children. Extended family: the people related to the members of the nuclear family. Blackfoot peoples: lived in tipis around Saskatchewan in the Central Plains. Chapter 7 Terms/People: (First Nations Peoples) Potlatch: a traditional ceremony practiced by many aboriginal peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast. Potlatch is Chinook meaning to give. The gifts of a potlatch are payments to those who witness a family ceremony. Totem pole: a large red cedar log that is carved and depicts a family history using crests and designs owned by an individual family – primarily a North West Coast (Salish/Haida) tradition. Palisade: wall of upright, often pointed logs. Pit house: a home that is partly built underground for the people of the Plateau. Ch. 7 Questions/Themes 1. Identify the 5 Native groups, their housing and the food they ate. Northwest Coast, Inuit, Plateau, Plains, Iroquois 2. What is the name of a native group that resides on the West Coast? Haida, Salish Chapter 8 Terms/People: (Exploration) Christopher Columbus: an explorer who sailed for Spain convinced that he could find a new route to Asia, which he never did. His journey launched the competition among European Nations to open trade routes to Asia. Vikings: most likely the first explorers to Canada who came from Scandinavia which is modern day Norway, Sweden, Denmark. They did not get along with the natives and were therefore forced to leave Canada. We know that were here from artifacts and sagas. Imperialism: the policy of extending control of a region or regions by one nation. Imperialism usually involves both economic and political control. Monopoly: the exclusive right to sell a product to a group of people. John Cabot: Henry VII of England gave him (an Italian) permission to explore the North Atlantic in hopes of finding the riches of Asia. He was given the letters patent to claim what he found. He was the captain of the ship Mathew. He claimed Newfoundland for the king. He was also astonished by all the fish on the Grand Banks. Chapter 8 Terms/People: (Exploration) Jacques Cartier: France’s king sent him out looking for the Northwest Passage. He kidnapped Iroquois peoples to take home with him. Scurvy: a terrible often fatal disease caused by lack of Vitamin C. Samuel de Champlain: He sailed for France after Jacques Cartier. He was given a monopoly on the fur trade in return for establishing a French colony called Port Royal in Nova Scotia. Fort Louisburg: this was the fort that was built in Quebec City just off of the St. Lawrence River that was supposed to be impenetrable yet was eventually taken over but the British (Wolfe) during the 7 years war. Coureur de bois: Runners of the woods who set out to explore the Great Lakes Region and were independent traders of the fur trade. Christian Missionaries: one who travels to another region to communicate a religious message, most commonly known as the Jesuits who were an order of the Roman Catholic priests. Chapter 8 Terms/People: (Exploration) Mercantilism: The theory states that there is a certain amount of wealth in the world and it would benefit the nations that claim it as a country achieves wealth by importing and exporting goods that can be sold for a profit. An economic theory that calls for a country to accumulate wealth in gold and silver. This was done, in part, by developing colonies as sources of raw materials and markets for finished goods. Jean Talon: He was New France’s first intendant who recruited women called the filles du roi. Frontenac: He was New France’s first Governor Seigneury: A feudal like state, where the seigneurs and the habitants had roles and responsibilities on the seigneury. Seven Years War: The origins were in North America and both the French and English wanted control of the Ohio River Valley. The British sent more troops after the British lost to the French and the native allies. The British forcibly ordered the Acadians from their homes when they refused to swear loyalty to Britain.English: General James Wolfe and French: General Montcalm. Chapter 8 Terms/People: (Exploration) Plains of Abraham: the final battle of the 7 years was fought on the Plains of Abraham where Wolfe was killed here and Montcalm was mortally wounded and died later. Quebec surrenders and the British take Montreal. The treaty of Paris is signed in 1763 and New France becomes a British Possession. Colonization: to settle in and control the lands of others, creating settlements and villages often for commercial advantage. Iroquois: a group of first nation’s people who were captured by Cabot, involved in the fur trade, fought many wars. Filles du Roi: these were women that Jean Talon recruited as New France needed settlers. They were also known as the Kings Daughters. Hundreds of women came to Canada to start a new life because of Talon. Ch. 8 Questions/Themes 1. Explain who the Acadians were and what happened to them. They were the original French Settlers of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick and PEI. They were peace keepers and tried not to pick sides between the French and English. They became British subjects with the treaty of Utretch and Britain demanded they swear an oath of loyalty to them. The Acadians refused and were forced to leave their homes and went to Massachusetts to Georgia. 2. What were the British and French looking for and why did they send explores on a more northerly route? They were looking for the Northwest Passage to Asia for trade. They were also looking for riches, gold and lands to make their Empire more rich and wealthy. 3. List the roles and responsibilities of the Governor, Intendant and the Bishop. Governor: Represented the king in New France, served as a figure head, highest ranking official in NF, appointed by nobility, chosen from among military officers, military planning and relations with Natives, ensure jobs get done. Intendant: acted as a master of NF’s king’s name, informed the king of colonial activities and harmony, appointed by nobility and supervised the day to day running of the colony and law and order, finances. Bishop: represented the Roman Catholic Church in NF, ruled over parish priests and nuns, in charge of missionaries, churches, hospitals and schools, member of the French nobility, reported to the king about colonial activities and harmony. Ch. 8 Questions/Themes 4. Describe the events and outcomes from the Seven Years War. The origins were in North America and both the French and English wanted control of the Ohio River Valley. The British sent more troops after the British lost to the French and the native allies. The British forcibly ordered the Acadians from their homes when they refused to swear loyalty to Britain. English: General James Wolfe and French: General Montcalm. 5. Explain the religion and the beliefs of the people living in New France. Life was based in the seigneurial system where Seigneurs were given parcels of land and habitants had the right to work, in exchange for fees and services paid to the seigneurs. Although mostly independent colonists kept their French traditions and customs The parcelling of land into seigneuries was begun by the Company of a 100 Associates The seigneur’s responsibility was to build and live in the manor house, hold court in the event of disputes, attract settlers and build a mill and for defence. The habitants were requires to pay rent, provide a days of service to the seigneur and to serve in the militia, to keep the land viable and productive, and use the mill on the land to grind the grain into flour. Life was based on the cycle of the farm and in addition to growing crops people also raised animals to supplement both their income and their diets Most of the seigneuries were located along the St. Lawrence River, they were here so that every strip of land had access to water for cultivation and transportation Chapter 9 Terms/People: (Early Canadian History) Economic Imperialist: Imperialism is the domination of one country by another, politically, economically or culturally. Economic imperialism refers to economic domination. Rupert’s Land: the territory given to the HBC by the British Government. Pemmican: a mixture of ground up buffalo, lard and berries. Navigational instruments: sextant, compass, telescope, time piece and other instruments to measure the location of the sun and starts with reference to the horizon and time of day. Ch. 9 Questions/Themes 1. Who and when was the HBC created? Describe how this company was run. Two brother-in-laws Radisson and Groseilliers visited London to propose establishing a fur trading post on Hudson Bay (they were both coureur de bois) King Charles II and his cousin Prince Rupert sent them out on a trial run and when they brought back the furs, the king created a territory named Rupert’s Land and gave it rights to all the land around all the rivers that drained into Hudson’s Bay. The company was profitable from the start. Its posts were called “factories” because the head trader was called “the Factor” Posts were located at the mouths of large rivers on the shores of Hudson Bay and James Bay and the posts staffed by Europeans Relied on Cree, Assiniboin and Chippewan to bring furs. Natives were eager to trade with HBC because it was the only post around for thousands of square miles and the trade were reasonable fair. Ships once a year and communicated with directors in London once a year. FIERCE Rivalry developed between HBC and NWC. Ch. 9 Questions/Themes 2. Who and when was the NWC created? Describe how this company was run. After the fall of New France (1763) the French fur trade was taken over by Scottish and American entrepreneurs (Montrealers) who eventually came together to form the North West Company in 1783. The Northwest Company (NWC) used trading networks set up by New France, many of the French employees and the French contacts with the Natives. Trading methods were different: NWC built many posts (they went to the natives) and the NWC tried to intercept furs on the way to HBC posts (this forced HBC to build posts further inland ex/ Cumberland house) 3. What was the most important and valuable fur during the fur trade? Canada only country in whole founded on whims of fashion. The Beaver Hat was a fashion rage that swept all of Europe and only the wealthy and fashionable people had and wore them. Ch. 9 Questions/Themes 4. Describe the life of a voyager. Travel: The entire distance from Montreal to Rocky Mts. could be travelled by water, but it was VERY difficult. Usual route: First stage using rivers all the way to the far shore of Lake Superior (Grand Portage aka Fort William) Second stage used smaller canoes using lakes and rivers (Lake Winnipeg and Saskatchewan River) Strength: Voyageurs who worked for the NWC were called Canadiens and they were famous for their strength and endurance. Paddling fifty minutes out of every hour, 40 strokes of the paddle a minute, they sang songs to help time go by. Portage: Carry canoe and goods over land to the next waterway. They would carry 36 kg of goods (called piéces). Food: Unappetizing meals. A special treat (galette) was when the cook punched a hole in the bag of flour and poured in a little water with salt. The main flavoring came from the cook’s unwashed hands. (Similar to pancakes). The voyageurs were like the coureur de bois but they moved ever westward searching for more furs and the Northwest Passage. Ch. 9 Questions/Themes 5. Describe the role played by Native peoples in the fur trade. The fur trade developed and Traders established a relationship with Natives that was based on equality (both profited from it) The competition between the NWC and the HBC benefited the natives Without their help, doubtful trader could have been successful. Traders took “country wives” (Native or Métis) provided many benefits for their husbands Family and social connections, knowledge about customs, acted as interpreters, ensured actual survival of European traders by: making sagamite (ground corn), moccasins, snowshoes, leather clothing, gathered firewood, made pemmican, and supplied other foods such as fish, maple sugar and berries. The women dressed the furs. Native and Métis women worked just as hard as their men. Native and Métis women suffered, but could seldom retaliate. They were often abandoned when European males married European women. The fur traders had no desire to conquer the Native peoples or change their beliefs. Chapter 10 Terms/People: (American Revolution) Upper Canada: “up” the St. Lawrence River; part of present-day Ontario. Lower Canada: “down” the St. Lawrence River; part of present-day Quebec. Quebec Act: In 1774 the Quebec Act was passed and made the conquered territory into a new British Colony but the Americans were NOT happy because it Recognized Catholic Church, Kept French Law for business and personal matters, Introduced English criminal law, Made Quebec larger. In general the act was good for Canada and French Canadians (as people thought) but the act was intended to introduce English Civil Law and suppress the Catholic Church (French). For Anglo-Americans, the Quebec Act was “intolerable” and led straight to the American Revolution. The act was designed to keep the colonists loyal to Britain but the bond in the 13 colonies and Britain was at a breaking point, especially as the colonists wanted to expand into the Ohio Valley. Quebec also did not have an elected assembly which would have given them more democracy. Chapter 10 Terms/People: (American Revolution) Stamp Act: In 1765 the Stamp Act passed and in 1766 the Stamp Act was repealed.The American colonists were troublesome and they were stirring up trouble with the French and Natives. The British had to supply troops and ships but those military actions cost money. British needed to tax Americans as they were costing too much of British tax payers’ money. Stamp Act in 1765 made Americans pay a small tax (similar to today’s Canadian Goods and Service Tax) on many goods and most government services. The tax was in the form of a stamp that people had to buy and stick to everything. The money from this Stamp Act was supposed to pay the costs of defending the American colonies. The American’s were even more enraged with this act and when they were sent out to enforce this Act they were often attacked and tarred and feathered. (To smear with hot tar and roll in feathers) In 1766 the Stamp Act was no longer enforced but the British brought in other taxes on teas and other imported goods. Molasses Act: this was a tax that was imposed on molasses and given to the British once the Stamp act was repealed. Chapter 10 Terms/People: (American Revolution) Sugar Act: this was a tax that was imposed on sugar and given to the British once the Stamp act was repealed. Tea Act: this was a tax that was imposed on tea and given to the British once the Stamp act was repealed. The Boston Tea Party came out of this intolerable act. Intolerable Act: all of the acts that cannot be tolerated and infuriated the Americans. Cholera: an infectious disease marked by terrible stomach cramps Ch. 10 Questions/Themes 1. What was the Constitutional Act, when did it happen, and what was the outcome? 1791 the Constitutional Act created English Upper Canada and French Lower Canada. There was discontent in Upper and Lower Canada. The French speaking Canadians wanted to govern differently than the Loyalists in Upper Canada so the Constitutional Act divided Quebec into two colonies, Lower Canada and Upper Canada. Both colonies had their own government which consisted of an elected assembly, a governor and two councils. Lower Canada was the new heartland of New France that kept French culture, religion (catholic) and French Civil law. Upper Canada was the new colony with its new boundary at the Ottawa River. Language/religion/law were English speaking and protestant, with British laws and institutions. Ch. 10 Questions/Themes 2. Describe why the American Revolution started, who was involved, battles that took place, and the final result of the war. In 1775 the American Revolution begins and by 1783 the American Revolution ends with victory. John Adams, Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson drafted a statement that would declare American independence from Britain – The American Declaration of Independence in 1776. The Declaration caused Britain to enlarge their army and navy and the war continued on for 7 more years. France joined in on the war on the American side, Britain lost many battles and soon American won the war. Colonists who had begun by protesting taxes on tea, sugar, and paper had won a revolution and created the United States of America. A Patriot is a supporter of the American Revolution and a Loyalist is a supporter to the British. Ch. 10 Questions/Themes 3. Describe why the War of 1812 started, who was involved, what happened throughout the war, and what was the final outcome of this war. In 1812 the war breaks out between British North America and the US and by 1815 the war is over. There was a lot of strain between the American Colonies and the British. Americans were annoyed at the loss of the trading with the British, the fur trade being lost, the War hawks wanted war and they considered British support of native people hostile acts but the British were not involved with the native peoples. The British thought that the Americans were a threat to the fur trade. Madison and his ‘War Hawks’ wanted war with British. Canada was attacked and two great American leaders were Tecumseh and Isaac Brock. No one won or lost – US was battered, and British left There were no border changes but made British North America hate the United States more. James Madison a guy who led soldiers who wanted no part of the war, they attacked Detroit and Niagara. Tecumseh Shawnee warrior built an alliance with General Brock and gained a victory at Detroit, tragically killed at Moravian town. General Brock worked with Tecumseh to attack the Americans at Detroit and Niagara, also gained this victory. General Hull he issued a proclamation to the population and attacked Detroit and Niagara and was forced to surrender Laura Secord a woman from Queenston who provided helpful information to the British. Brock and Tecumseh at Detroit they forced Hull to surrender, which was a victory for Britain. Battle for Queenston Hills Brock was killed here while charging at the Americans. Battle at Beaver Dams the Americans lost to the Iroquois at Beaver Dams Battle at Lundy’s Lane largest battle in Upper Canada which the British won at Lundy’s Lane.