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Sunday, April 30, 2017 Electron Configuration and Notation guided notes Why We Care Chemical ________________________ happen because ________________________ are ________________________ or ________________________ from one atom to another. Electron Configuration The electron configuration of an atom shows how the electrons are distributed among the atomic ______________________ and ______________________ ______________________. Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ spdf Electron Notation This format consists of a series of numbers, letters and ______________________ The result is a complete ______________________ for the element’s location on the ______________________ ________________. Energy Levels The large number "1" refers to the ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ "n" which stands for the energy level. It tells us that the electrons of helium occupy the first energy level of the atom. The principle quantum number is equal to the ______________________ on the periodic table where the element is located. Energy level ___ is the ______________________ in energy and _______________________________ to the nucleus. The _____________________________ the energy level, the _____________________________ it is from the nucleus. Lower levels are filled _____________________________, before _____________________________ energy levels Sublevels The letter tells what ______________________ the electrons occupy. In this case, the "s” tells us that the two electrons of the helium electron occupy an "____" or ____________________ orbital. The four types of orbitals are indicated by the letters _____, _____, _____, or _______ An Important Note Whether atoms interact depends almost entirely on the arrangement of their outer energy level (_________________) electrons. Only ____ and ____ sublevel electrons are considered valence electrons. The ____________ number of electrons, total, in the s and p sublevels is ____. Electrons in the ____ and ____ sublevels are ____________ in the ____________________ energy level of an atom. Orbitals The exponent "2" refers to the total number of ______________________ in the orbital. In this case, we know that there are two electrons in the spherical orbital at the first energy level. Sublevels and Orbitals Chart Orbital and Electron Capacity for the Sublevels Maximum Number of Electrons Total Number of Orbitals per Energy Level To calculate the number of orbitals found in an energy level use the formula ______________________. For example, the third energy level (n=3) contains ______________________ orbitals. 1 Number of Orbitals Page Sublevel This makes sense because we know that the third energy level would have 3 sublevels; an ____ with one orbital, a ____ with 3 orbitals and a ____ with 5 orbitals. 1 + 3 + 5 = ____. Total Number of Electrons per Energy Level To calculate the total number of electrons that can be held in an energy level use the formula ________. For example, the fourth energy level (n=4) can hold 2(4)2 = ______________________ electrons. This makes sense because the fourth energy level would have four sublevels. The s = 2 e-, p = 6 e-, d = 10 e- and f = 14 e-. 2 + 6 + 10 + 14 = 32 Orbitals and Electron Capacity of the First Four Principle Energy Levels Principle energy level (n) Type of sublevel Number of orbitals per type Number of orbitals per level (n2) Maximum # of Electrons (2n2) Guiding Principles in Electron Configuration The Pauli Exclusion Principle States that only ______________________ electrons with ______________________ spins can occupy the same atomic orbital An orbital is filled when it contains ______________________ electrons. After that, you have to put the electrons in a different orbital. The Aufbau Principle The Aufbau (___________________ ______) Principle describes the order in which orbitals are filled: the number of electrons in an atom is equal to the ______________________ ______________________; each added electron will enter the orbitals with the ______________________ energy first. Hund’s Rule Electrons prefer to occupy an ______________________ orbital to minimize ______________________ -______________________ repulsion. Electrons in ______________________ orbitals of the same ______________________ will all spin in the ______________________ direction, called ______________________ spins. In other words, electrons move into each and all orbitals in the subshell before they pair up (electrons in the same orbit always have ______________________ spins). Stability of Atoms Certain electron ______________________ are more stable than others. The most stable atoms have a ______________________ outer ______________________ level. ______________________ Rule - the ______________________ number of electrons in the outer energy level is 8. Atoms with ______________________ -______________________ sublevels are ______________________ stable. Page Exception to the octet rule: ______________________ & ______________________, with only one energy level, can only hold 2 electrons. 2 Atoms will form ______________________ with other ______________________ to reach eight electrons in their outer energy level.