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13a 13b 13c 13d 13e 13f 13g 13h 13i 13j 13k 13l Property of Minooka Community High School A sentence is a word group that contains a subject and a verb that expresses a complete thought. • EX: The magazine’s essay contest for tenth- grade American history students ends Tuesday. A sentence fragment is a word or word group that is capitalized and punctuated as a sentence but that does not contain both a subject and a verb or that does not express a complete thought. • EX: Was chosen as the best one from over two thousand entries. • EX: When the judges announced the winner. Sentences consist of two basic parts: subjects and predicates. Subjects tell whom or what the sentence or clause is about. Predicates subject. tell something about the SUBJECTS Some residents of the desert PREDICATES Particularly noteworthy is PREDICATES can survive a long drought. SUBJECTS the Australian frog. The main word or word group that tells whom or what the sentence is about is called the simple subject. The complete subject consists of the simple subject and any words or word groups that modify the simple subject. EX: A dog with this pedigree is usually nervous. Complete subject: A dog with this pedigree Simple subject: dog EX: Both of these cockatiels are for sale. Complete subject: Both of these cockatiels Simple subject: Both The simple predicate, or verb, is the main word or word group that tells something about the subject. The complete predicate consists of the verb and all the words that modify the verb and complete its meaning. EX: Spiders snare their prey in intricate webs. Complete predicate: snare their prey in intricate webs Simple predicate: snare EX: Rosa has been looking for you all morning. Complete predicate: has been looking for you all morning. Simple predicate: has been looking Commonly used helping verbs: AM DID HAS MIGHT WAS ARE DO HAVE MUST WERE CAN DOES IS SHALL WILL COULD HAD MAY SHOULD WOULD The subject of a verb is NEVER in a prepositional phrase. A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object. • EX: for the team • EX: on the top shelf through the years at all times DO NOT mistake a noun or pronoun in a prepositional phrase for the subject of the sentence. EX: One of my cousins has visited Ghana. [Who has visited? One has visited] EX: On top of the building is an up-todate observatory. [What is?] The word here or there may begin a sentence, but it is almost never the subject. Often there or here is used as an adverb telling where. • EX: There are your gloves. [What are? Gloves are. Gloves is the subject. There tells where your gloves are.] Questions usually begin with a verb, a helping verb, or a words such as what, when, where, how, or why. In most cases, the subject follows the verb or part of the verb phrase. • EX: Where is your parakeet? • EX: Did you make the team? In a question that begins with a helping verb, the subject generally comes between the helping verb and the main verb. • EX: Were your friends early? • EX: Where did the horse cross the river? In a request or command, the subject is usually not stated. • EX: [YOU] Please rake the yard. • EX: [YOU] Pick up the fallen branches. When a request/command includes a name, the name is not the subject but a noun of direct address. You is still the understood subject. • EX: Jason, [YOU] wash the dishes. A compound subject consists of 2+ subjects that are joined by a conjunction and that have the same verb. • EX: Mr. Olivero and his daughter planted the garden. • EX: Either Mr. Olivero or his daughter planted the garden. A compound verb consists of 2+ verbs that are joined by a conjunction and that have the same subject. • EX: At the street festival, we danced the rumba and sampled the meat pies. • EX: I have written the letter and addressed the envelope but have not gone to the post office yet. A complement is a word or word group that completes the meaning of the verb. • EX: That book is an autobiography. • EX: Bob felt confident. • EX: Joey hit a home run. A subject complement is a word or word group that completes the meaning of a linking verb and identifies or modifies the subject. • EX: We may be the only ones here. • EX: Roscoe seems worried. • EX: Did you know that Lani is a soccer player? A predicate nominative is a word or word group that is in the predicate and that identifies the subject or refers to it. Nominative=noun!! • EX: Some caterpillars become butterflies. • EX: She is the next speaker. A predicate adjective is an adjective that is in the predicate and that modifies the subject of a sentence or a clause. ADJECTIVE=DESCRIBES NOUN/PRONOUN!!! • EX: You look happy. • EX: When she left, Nora appeared calm. A direct object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that tells who/what receives the action of the verb or shows the result of the action. DIRECT OBJECTS=NEVER IN A PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE. Cross them out!!! • EX: I took my little sister to the movies. • EX: Tom was driving his car. An indirect object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that often appears in sentences containing direct objects. An indirect object tells to whom/what (or for whom/what) the action of a verb is done. An I.O. has to have a D.O.—CANNOT STAND ALONE!!! • EX: Meli read us her report. • EX: They fed the horses some oats. • EX: Juan left you a message. 1.Declarative: makes a statement and ends with a period. • EX: Toni Morrison won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1993. 2. Imperative: gives a command/makes a request. Most end with a period; strong command ends with exclamation point. • EX: Be careful. • EX: Wait! 3. Interrogative: asks a question and ends with a question mark. • EX: Can you speak English? 4. Exclamatory: shows excitement/expresses strong feeling and ends with an exclamation point. • EX: What a beautiful day this is!