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Mental/Emotional Health
Stress and Anxiety Disorders
Chapter 7, 8, 9
Myth or Fact
☼ People who have mental and emotional
disorders are typically violent.
☼ Mental and emotional disorders are true
medical illnesses like heart disease
☼ Most people can “snap out of” their depression
if they try hard enough
☼ Depression and other mental or emotional
disorders do not affect children or adolescents
Myth or Fact
☼ People are less likely to seek treatment for
mental disorders than for physical disorders
☼ People who talk about suicide should always
be taken seriously.
☼ Being treated for a mental or an emotional
disorder means that an individual has failed in
someway or is responsible for the problem
☼ Getting help for a mental problem is difficult
and expensive
Mental/Emotional Health
☼ Mental/Emotional is the ability to accept yourself and
others, adapt to and manage emotions, and deal with
the demands and challenges you meet in life.
☼People with good Mental/emotional Health
demonstrate the following characteristics.
☼ Getting help for a mental problem is difficult and
☼Positive self-esteem- Your feelings of confidence and self
esteem are directly related to your general level of wellness
☼ Sense of Belonging- emotional attachment to family, friends,
teachers, provides comfort and assurance.
☼ Sense of Purpose- Recognizing your own value.
☼ Positive Outlooks- Having hope about life, it reduces stress
and increases your energy level.
☼ Autonomy- Having the confidence to make responsible and
safe decisions. Sense of independence
Maslow’s Hierarch of Needs
☼ Abraham Maslow was a pioneer in
☼ Maslow organized human needs in the
form of a pyramid call the hierarchy of
☼ Hierarchy of needs- is a ranked list of
those needs essential to human growth
and development.
Level 5
Level 4
Level 3
Level 2
Level 1
Hierarch of Needs
☼ Physical Needs- Survival needs such as food, water, sleep,
and Shelter from the elements are among the need at the
bottom of the pyramid.
☼ Need for Safety- includes more than just safeguarding
yourself against physical harm.
☼ Need to be loved and to belong- Everyone needs to give love
and to know that he or she is loved in return. Babies who are
denied emotional attention may be stunted mentally.
☼ Feeling Recognized- Most of us feel a need to be
appreciated, to be personally valued by family, friends, and
☼ Reaching your Potential- Self-actualization is the striving to
become the best you can be-includes having goals that
motivates and inspire you. It means having the courage to
make changes in your life in order to reach your goals and grow
as a person.
☼ Personality- is a complex set of
characteristics that makes you unique.
☼ It’s what makes you different from everyone else
and determines how you will react in certain
☼ Personality includes an individual's emotional
makeup, attitudes, thoughts, and behaviors.
☼ Personality and Heredity
☼ Just like you inherit physical traits such as hair and eye
color, you inherit some personality traits from your parents.
☼ You still have control over your own personality.
☼ Personality and Environment
☼ Environment includes everything that surrounds you in your
day-to-day life. Meaning your family, friends, peers, home,
neighborhood, and school.
☼ Modeling- observing and learning from the behaviors of
those around you.
☼ Personality and Behavior
☼ The one aspect of your personality over which you have the
most control is your behavior.
☼ How you make decision, what decision you make, whether you
recognize the consequences of those decisions,
Personal Identity
☼ Personal Identity-is your sense of yourself as a
unique individual.
☼ To develop your personal identity includes:
☼ your interest
☼ your likes and dislikes
☼ your talents and abilities
☼ your values and beliefs
☼ your goals
Developmental assets
☼Developmental assets are the building blocks of
development that help young people grow up as
healthy, caring, and responsible individuals.
☼ Support
☼ Empowerment
☼ Expectations
☼ Constructive use of time
☼ Commitment to learning
☼ Positive Values
☼ Social skills
☼ Positive Identity
Healthy Identity
☼ Recognize your strengths and weaknesses
☼ Accept and take pride in your strengths and accomplishments.
☼ Demonstrate Positive Values
☼ Your values, beliefs and ideas about what is important in your life, guide your
actions and influence the decisions you make.
☼ Develop a purpose in your life
☼ Having a sense of purpose means establishing goals and working to achieve
☼ From MEANINGFUL relationships
☼ Positive relationships provide one way to have a purpose in your life.
☼ Relationships give you a support system as well as building confidence and
develop a sense of security and belonging.
☼ Contribute to the Community
☼ Your community is an extended support system for you and your family, it
provides services and resources to meet many of your needs. Giving back to the
community is part of being a good citizen and it helps you feel a sense of
☼ Avoid unhealthy risk behaviors
☼ Risk taking is a normal part of growing up, such as engaging in sports, public
speaking, making new friends, HOWEVER ATOD’s, or reckless driving can be
dangerous and not necessary. Keep in mind the aspects of your identity, such as
your values, that you are trying to uphold.
☼ When you have a healthy identity, you will experience
increase self-esteem and a higher level of
mental/emotional health.
☼ Self-esteem comes from understanding that you are
unique and valuable human being.
☼ To increase self-esteem and develop a positive outlook
on life, it is essential to see events realistically.
☼ For example, a students who has just failed an exam may think
that she is stupid and will always fail.
☼ Constructive Criticism- non-hostile comments that point
our problems and encourage improvement.
☼ Emotions are signals that tell your mind and body
how to react.
☼Emotions are sometimes referred to as feelings, emotions
are your responses to certain thought and events.
☼ Emotions affect all sides of your health triangle.
☼ Joy can prompt the release of brain chemicals that cause
you to experience warmth and a sense of well being
☼ Fear can trigger physical changes, including increase
perspiration, a rise in heart rate, and tightening of muscles.
☼Fight or Flight response
☼ Strong emotions like anger can cause both physical and
mental responses.
Identifying Your Emotions
☼ Sometimes you know exactly what you are
feelings and why.
☼ Sometimes you may experience emotions that
seem to have no apparent cause.
☼ Hormones- is a chemical secreted by your
glands that regulates the activities of different
body cells.
☼ May cause you to swing quickly between extreme
emotions such as depression.
☼ Mixed emotions, such as when you feel both jealous
of and happy for a friends, also can be challenging.
Identifying Your Emotions
☼ Happiness
☼ pleased or that you feel good or carefree
☼ Sadness
☼ healthy reaction to difficult events. Caused from disappointment, a loss
or rejected.
☼ Love
☼ Strong affection, deep concern and respect
☼ Empathy
☼ Is the ability to imagine and understand how someone else feels.
☼ Fear
☼ Fear is an emotional response to tangible and realistic dangers.
☼ Guilt
☼ Guilt is an emotional experience that occurs when a person realizes that
he or she has violated a moral standards or values.
☼ Anger
☼ Common reaction to being emotionally hurt or physically harmed.
☼ hostility is the intentional use of unfriendly or offensive behavior, can be
particularly damaging, not only to others but also to the hostile person.
Dealing with Emotions in Positive
☼ Important to evaluate methods of
communicating feelings and practice healthful
ways of expression
☼ Negative ways of dealing with feelings do
nothing to solve problems.
☼ Exaggerating emotions for effect pretending that
feeling are not there at all or intentionally hurting
another person which expression feeling can
worsen the situation and create new problems
Responding to Your Emotions
☼ Look below the surface of the problem.
☼ consider whether or not the situation to which
you are reacting will matter tomorrow, next
week, or next year.
☼ Don’t take action on a strong feeling until you
have considered all the possible
consequences of your actions.
☼ Use positive feelings to inspire yourself.
☼ If a negative feeling doesn’t go away, seek
help from a parent, another trusted adult, or a
health care professional.
Managing Difficult Emotions
☼ Use Defense Mechanisms
☼ Are the mental processes that protect individuals from strong or
stressful emotions and situations
☼ suppression- is holding back or retraining, can provide a temporary
escape from an unpleasant situation.
☼ Handling Fear
☼ Identify the fear. Analyzing the situation that causes the fear often
helps. Some fear is healthy and natural; only when fear is irrational or
incontrollable should you consider it a problem.
☼ Dealing with Guilty
☼ Can be a very destructive emotion.
☼ You need to find the underlying source and address it.
☼ Discuss the situation with friends or family can help.
☼ Managing Anger
☼ Most difficult emotions to handle.
☼ Constructively dealing with anger is similar to dealing with guilt.
☼ You need to find the underlying source and address it.
☼ Stress is the reaction of the body and mind to
everyday challenges and demands.
☼ Perception is the act of becoming of events that
cause stress.
☼One way to manage stress is to change how you
perceive and react to events that cause it
☼ Stress is not necessarily good or bad, it can
have positive or negative effects.
☼ Good/Positive- Performing better under the stress of
☼ Bad/Negative- Losing sleep because of a flight with a
loved one
What Causes Stress?
☼ Stressor- is anything that causes stress.
☼ Biological Stressors
☼ Such as illness, disabilities, or injuries
☼ Environmental Stressors
☼ Such as poverty, pollution, crowding, noise, or natural
☼ Cognitive (Thinking) Stressors
☼ Such as the way you perceive a situation or how it affects
you and the world around you.
☼ Personal Behavior Stressors
☼Such as negative reactions in the body and mind caused by
using ATOD’s or lack of physical activity
☼ Life Situation Stressors
☼ Such as death, separation or divorce of parents or having
trouble in relationships with peers.
The Body’s Stress Response
☼ The two major body systems, the Nervous system and the
Endocrine system, are active during the body’s response to
☼ Alarm
☼ First stage in the stress response. Body and mind go on high alert.
☼ Resistance
☼ Second stage in the stress response. Your body adapts to the rush
created by alarm and reacts to the stressors. This is the stage in which
you “fight” or take “flight”
☼ Fatigue
☼ Physical fatigue-results when the muscles work vigorously for long
periods, often leading to soreness and pain.
☼ Psychological fatigue- can result from constant worry, overwork,
depression, boredom, isolation, or feeling overwhelmed by too many
☼ Pathological fatigue-is the tiredness brought on by overworking the
body’s defenses in fighting disease.
☼ Prolonged or repeated stress can lead to stress related
illnesses causes by the changes that take place in your body
during these three stages
Stress and your Health
☼ Physical Effects
☼ Headache
☼ Asthma
☼ High Blood Pressure
☼ Weakened immune system
☼ Mental/Emotional and Social Effects
☼ Difficulty concentrating
☼ Mood Swings
☼ Risk of substance abuse
Chronic Stress
☼ Chronic Stress- stress associated with long-term
problems that are beyond a person’s control.
☼ Could last for months
☼ Symptoms include upset stomach, headache, insomnia,
changes in appetite, and feeling anxious.
☼ Strategies for controlling Chronic Stress
☼ Engage in physical activity
☼ Look for support from friends and family
☼ Find a hobby or activity that relaxes you
☼ Avoid ATOD’s
Ways to Manage Stress
☼ Plan Ahead
☼ Get Adequate Sleep
☼ Get Regular Physical Activity
☼ Eat Nutritious Food
☼ Avoid ATOD’s
☼ Stress management skill- are skills that help an
individual handle stress in a healthful, effective way.
Techniques include:
☼ Redirect your energy
☼ Relax and laugh-relaxation response is a state of calm that
can be reach if one or more relaxation techniques are
practiced regularly.
☼ Keep a positive outlook.
☼ Seek out support
☼ Anxiety is the condition of feeling uneasy or
worried about what may happen.
☼ Symptoms include:
☼ feelings of fear
☼ perspiration, trembling, restlessness, or muscle
☼ rapid heat rate, lightheadedness, or shortness of
☼ Managing Anxiety
☼ Stress management techniques, such as redirecting
your energy or doing relaxation exercises, can be
used to reduce the day to day anxieties of life.
☼ Depression is a prolonged feeling of helplessness,
hopelessness, and sadness, is much stronger than the
occasional sad mood and is not as easy to manage.
☼ Reactive Depression
☼ is a response to a stressful event, such as death.
☼ Major Depression
☼ is a medical condition requiring treatment.
☼ More severe and last much longer than reactive depression.
☼ Could develop from reactive depression
☼ Symptoms of Teen Depression irritable or restless mood
withdrawal from friends
A change in appetite or weight
feelings of guilt or worthlessness
a sense of hopelessness
☼ Many people experience a few of these symptoms once in a
while its normal, Its not normal to experience several of them
at the same time for two weeks or more
☼ Resiliency
☼ is the ability to adapt effectively and recover from
disappointment, difficulty, or crisis.
☼ Resilient people are able to handle adversity in healthful
ways and achieve long term success.
☼ Having some of the development assets will likely
strengthen a person’s resiliency.
☼ Factors that Affects Resiliency
☼ External Factors- Include your family, your school, and your
☼ Internal Factors☼ Commitment to learning
☼ Positive values
☼ Social awareness
☼ Positive identity
☼Protective Factors
Mental Disorders
☼ Mental disorders are illnesses of the mind that can
affect the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of a
person, preventing him or her from leading a happy,
healthful, and productive life.
☼ Mental disorders are classified as either organic or
☼ Organic disorder is caused by a physical illness or an
injury that affects the brain.
☼ Functional disorder has a psychological cause and does
not involve brain damage. These disorders may result from
heredity, stress, emotional, conflict, fear, ineffective coping
skills, or other conditions.
☼ Four Type of disorders:
☼ Anxiety Disorders
☼ Mood Disorders
☼ Conduct Disorders
☼ Personality Disorders
Types of Mental Disorders
Anxiety Disorders
☼ Anxiety Disorders- a condition in which real or
imagined fears are difficult to control.
☼ Phobia- Strong and irrational fear of something specific,
such as high places or dogs. People with phobias do
everything they can to avoid the object of their fear.
☼ Obsessed Compulsive Disorder- is trapped in a pattern of
repeated thoughts or behaviors.
☼ Panic Disorder- Sudden, unexplained feelings of terror.
“Panic attacks” are accompanied by symptoms such as
trembling, a pounding heart, shortness of breaths.
☼ Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder-is an illness, often with an
organic cause, that involves mood extremes that interfere
with everyday living
Types of Mental Disorders
Mood Disorders
☼Mood Disorders- Is an illness, often with an
organic cause, that involves mood extremes
that interfere with everything living
☼ Clinical Depression- Chemical imbalance that a
person cannot overcome without professional help.
☼ Bipolar Disorder-(manic-depressive disordered) is
marked by extreme mood changes, energy levels,
and behavior.
☼ Eating Disorders
Types of Mental Disorders
Conduct Disorders
☼ Conduct Disorders- a pattern of behavior in
which the rights of others or basic social
rules are violated.
☼ Schizophrenia
☼ is a severe mental disorder in which a person loses
contact with reality.
☼ Symptoms include: delusions, hallucinations, and
thought disorders.
☼ Causes are a combination of genetic factors and
chemical and structural changes in the brain.
☼ This disease affects both men and woman and usually
first appears between ages of 18-35.
Types of Mental Disorders
Personality Disorders
☼ Personality refers to an individual’s unique traits and
behavior patterns.
☼ People with this disease think and behave in ways
that make it difficult for them to get along with others.
☼ Antisocial Disorder- People with this disorder tend to be
irritable, aggressive, impulsive, and violent.
☼ Borderline Personality Disorder- People with this disorder
frequently experience a series of trouble relationships.
☼ Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder- People with this
disorder are often uncooperative. They resent being told
what to do. Yet they relay on others’ directions.
☼ Suicide- the most drastic of all measures, is
the act of intentionally taking one’s own life.
☼ Most suicide thoughts, behaviors, and actions
are expressions of extreme distress, not bids
for attention.
☼ More than 90% of the people who kill
themselves are suffering from depression or
another mental disorder or are abusing alcohol
or drugs.
☼ Multiple Suicides are a series of suicides
occurring within a short period of time and
involving several people in the same school or
Preventing Suicide
☼ Although most thought about committing
suicide are impulsive and temporary the
unfortunate consequence death or
debilitating injury is permanent. More than
90% of the people who kill themselves are
suffering from depression or another
mental disorder or are abusing alcohol or
☼ Warning Signs
☼ Figure 9.2
Helping Others
☼ Suicidal people often believe that their death
will not matter.
☼ It is critical to show concern and empathy for
someone who is talking about suicide.
☼ Initiate a meaningful conversation- showing
interest and compassion for a person is key.
Listen, be patient and understanding.
☼ Show support and ask questions- Remind the
person that most problem have solutions.
☼ Try to persuade the person to seek helpEncourage the person to talk with a parent,
counselor, therapist, or trusted adult.
Therapy Methods
☼ Psychotherapy- is an ongoing treatment between a
patient and a mental health professional.
☼ Behavior therapy- is a treatment process that
☼ Cognitive therapy- is a treatment method designed
to identify and correct distorted thinking patterns that
can leas to feelings and behaviors that may be
troublesome, self-defeating, or self destructive.
☼ Group therapy- involves treating a group of people
who have similar problems and who meet regularly
with a trained counselor.
Death and Grief
☼ Coping is dealing successfully with
difficult changes in your life.
☼ Grief response an individual’s total
response to a major loss.
☼ Mourning is the act of showing sorrow or
The Grieving Process
☼ Denial -A person does not believe the loss has occurred
☼ Emotional Release- These reactions come with recognition of
the loss and often involve periods of crying, which is important
to the healing process
☼ Anger- Feeling powerless and unfairly deprived, the person
may lash out.
☼ Bargaining- As the reality of the loss becomes clear, the person
may promise to change if only what was lost can be returned.
☼ Depression- Beyond the natural feelings of sadness, feeling of
isolation, and hopelessness occur as the person.
☼ Remorse- The person may become preoccupied with thoughts
about what he or she could have done to prevent the loss or
make things better.
☼ Acceptance- The stage can involve a sense of power, allowing
the person to face reality.
☼ Hope- Eventually the person reaches a point when
remembering becomes less painful and he or she begins to
look ahead to the future