गरु ु पौर्णिमा गरू ु -शिष्य LMü xÉqÉ×® परं परा mÉëuÉÏhÉ mÉÉOûÏsÉ eÉÏ LxÉ LxÉ qÉWûÉÌuÉ±ÉsÉrÉ oÉåVûaÉÉuÉ ”GURU IS SHIV WITH TWO EYES, VISHNU WITH TWO HANDS AND BRAHMA WITH ONE HEAD” FROM MANTRAS WITH TWO LETTERS THE BEST MANTRA IS GURU,THERE IS NO DOUBT IT IS THE EXTRACT OF SMRITI, VEDAS AND PURANAS”. GURU POURNIMA The full moon day in the Hindu month of Ashad (July-August) is observed as the auspicious day of Guru Purnima. A day sacred to the memory of the great sage Vyasa. All Hindus are indebted to this ancient saint who edited the four Vedas, wrote the 18 Puranas, the Mahabharata and the Srimad Bhagavata. Vyasa even taught Dattatreya, who is regarded as the Guru of Gurus. MAHARSHI VED VYASA 1500 BC Compiled the Vedas into four heads: Rig, Yajur, Saam, and Atharv. Other woks of Ved Vyas were Brahma-sootras – Background of Vedas Eighteen Puranas – Stories of great heroes Mahabharat – Greatest epic of all times Bhagavad Gita – Essence of Upanishads Bhagavatam – Devotional story of Lord Krishna गरू ु GURU as per Dwayopanishad Guru = Gu + Ru The letter ‘ gu ’ stands for darkness & ‘ ru’ stands for that which removes darkness. Guru’ implies one who removes darkness of ignorance. SHISHYA Sradha Opens the channel for accepting knowledge from the Guru. Undivided attention, commitment and discipline. Bhakti Devotion to teacher Jijnasa Desire to learn Background of Guru Sishya parampara Beginning of oral traditions of Upanishads (c.2000 BCE) Upanishads – “upa ” near” “ni ” down and “sad” to sit. ” So it means sitting down near a spiritual teacher to receive instruction. Foundation again by Shankaracharya in 9th century through parampara. SANKARA Advaitha philosophy 7th century AD traveled all over India having public debates with other philosophers true happiness can be attained by removing avidya(ignorance) and maya (self deception) RAMANUJA 10th Century AD Vishistadvaitha wanted everybody irrespective of social standing to enjoy the eternal bliss of Lord Narayana Bhakti - complete surrender to the Lord MADHVA Dwaitha philosophy 12th Century AD the world is not an illusion. solitary study of the scriptures, performing one's duty without selfinterest, practical acts of devotion GURU STUDENT RELATIONSHIP Great Gurus and Their Great Disciples Samartha Ramdas - Chhatrapati Shivaji Chanakya - Chandragupta Swami Vidyaranya - Hukka-Bukka Vishwamitra - Rama-Laxman Krishna - Arjuna Dhronacharya - Arjuna Yama - Nachiketa Ramakrishna - Vivekananda Nivrutinath - Dnyaneshwar Story From Mahabharat There is another very inspiring story from the Mahabharat. When Ekalavya’s guru, Shri Dronacharya asked for his right thumb in Guru Dakshina, the great archer, Ekalavya, cut off his thumb without any hesitation and gave it to his guru. Even though he knew that he wouldn’t remain a great archer afterwards, he had no hesitation before giving up his thumb Dhoumya and Aruni There is a beautiful story of Aruni of Panchala and his guru Dhoumya in Mahabharat. To fulfill the wishes of his guru, Aruni slept all night in the freezing cold water so that he could stop the water from running out of the farm. When Sage Dhoumya found Aruni next morning sleeping in the breached embankment of the farm, Aruni was muttering, “The water is flowing out, the crops will die.” Such was the devotion of Aruni for his guru. Sage Dhoumya embraced Aruni with tears of love flowing out of his eyes. Such was the love of the guru to his students. CONTEMPORARY HINDU LEADERS IN AMERICA David Frawley Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami Mahesh Yogi Satchidananda Mata Amritanandamayi VIVEKANANDA First Hindu leader to visit America Famous address at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago on September 11,1893 Spent three years preaching the Vedanta philosophy in America and England Founded the Ramakrishna Mission CONTRIBUTION OF GURU SHISHYA PARAMPARA The law of gravitation discovered by Brahmagupta 598 A.D. anticipated after 1400 years by Newton declaring "all things fall to the earth by law of nature; for it is the nature of the earth to attract and keep things." Pingala (3rd C AD), author of Chandasutra explored the relationship between combinatorics and musical theory anticipating Mersenne (1588-1648) author of a classic on musical theory SOME FACTS The 'Pythagoras theorem' which stated in Sulva Sutras by Baudhayana's (6th century BC): "The diagonal of a rectangle produces both areas, which its length and breadth produce separately." Arya Bhatta discovered the method of finding out the areas of a triangle, a trapezium and a circle. The approximate value of an 'irrational number' i.e. 2 (dvikarani) (1.143256) and 3 (1.7320513) can be obtained, Baudhayana and Apastamba. SOME FACTS In the geometry of the circle, "Arybhatta- I" gave a value for pi (tyajya) which is correct to the four decimal places in a sloka (Sankara Varman's treatise on astronomy, Sadratnamala) theorems and their deductions:"Lemma of Brahmagupta for integral solution or the indeterminate equation of second degree. John Pell (1611-1685) discovered this in the 17th century. Indians discovered it a 1,000 years earlier SOME FACTS Zero, the most modest and most valuable of all numerals is one of the subtle gifts of India to mankind. The earliest use of the zero symbol, so far discovered, is in one of the scriptural books dated about 200 B.C. The zero, called shunya or nothing, was originally a dot and later it became a small circle. It was considered as a number like any other. Professor G. B. Halsted, in his book ' Mathematics for the Million' (London 1942) thus emphasizes the vital significance of this invention. INDIA’S DECIMAL SYSTEM The decimal system was known to Aryabhatta and Brahmagupta long before its appearance in the writings of the Arabs and the Syrians; it was adopted by China from Buddhist missionaries; and Muhammad Ibn Musa al-Khwarazni, the greatest mathematician of his age (ca 850 A.D.), seems to have introduced it into Baghdad INDIA’S DECIMAL SYSTEM India’s system of Decimal counting goes back to the days of Ramayana (around 5000 BC) and Mahabharata (3067 BC) In Ramayana, the Rama’s army was described by Ravana’s missionary as having 18x1018 ( 18 Padams, 1012 millions ) BRAHMAGUPTA’S RULES A debt minus zero is a debt. A fortune minus zero is a fortune. Zero (shunya) minus zero is nothing. (kha). A debt subtracted from zero is a fortune. So a fortune subtracted from zero is a debt. The product of zero multiplied by a debt or fortune is zero. The product of zero multiplied by itself is nothing. The product or the quotient of two fortunes is one fortune. The product or the quotient of two debts is one debt. The product or the quotient of a debt multiplied by a fortune is a debt. The product or the quotient of a fortune multiplied by a debt is a debt. METALLURGY Iron Pillar at Delhi - The Rust less Wonder and a Unique Scientific Phenomenon from Ancient India, The pillar is said to be over 2000 years old As early as the second century B.C. Nagarjuna devoted an entire volume to mercury The Konasamudram region in Andhra Pradesh was famous for producing the world renowned Wootz steel the raw material for King Saladin's fabled Damascus Sword. The tempering of steel was brought in ancient India to a perfection unknown in Europe till our own times. King Porus is said to have selected, as special valuable gift for Alexander, not gold or silver, but thirty pounds of steel. PHYSICS Kanaada, 600 B. C the founder of the Vaisesika system of philosophy, expounded that the entire matter in this world consists of atoms as many in kind as the various elements. He also claimed that elements could not be destroyed Artharveda says that there are seven types of sun's rays, sapta surayasya rasmayah, signifying seven colors of light Umasvati, first century A.D. suggested that atoms of opposite qualities alone combined and the atoms attracted or repelled as they were heterogeneous or homogenous SHIPBUILDING AND NAVIGATION The art of Navigation was born in the river Sindh 6000 years ago There is overwhelming evidence that Indian civilization traded with the Egyptians using ships. Rig Veda makes several references to ships used to cross the "Samudra." SHIPBUILDING AND NAVIGATION History records that Indian ships traded with countries as far as Java and Sumatra, they were also trading with other countries in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Chandragupta Maurya established an Admiralty Division under a Superintendent of Ships as part of his war office, with a charter including responsibility for navigation on the seas, oceans, lakes and rivers SHIPBUILDING AND NAVIGATION King Hiram of Tyre (Phoenicia) in 975 B.C. traded with India through the port of Ophir (Supara) near modern Bombay. Harappan seals discovered at several Mesopotamia sites have been dated to about 2400 B.C. Yukti Kalpa Taru, explains how to build ships, ship types, sizes and materials, including suitability of different types of wood Bhoja has advised the builders of the sea-faring ships not to join the plants with iron, as, in the case, the magnetic iron in sea water could expose the ship to danger MEDICAL SCIENCE Susruta Samhita, (600 B.C.) the Hindu medical chronicle said about plastic surgery in India Caraka Samhita, (300 BC) Sutra Sthana Nidan Sthana (8 chapters) Viman Sthana (8 chapters) Sharir Sthana (8 chapters) Indriya Sthana (12 chapters) Chikitsa Sthana (30 chapters) Kalpa Sthana (12 chapters) Siddhi Sthana (12 chapters) AVIATION Acharya Bharadwaj (800BC) authored the "Yantra Sarvasva" which includes astonishing and outstanding discoveries in aviation science, space science and flying machines. He has described three categories of flying machines: 1.) One that flies on earth from one place to another. 2.) One that travels from one planet to another. 3.) And One that travels from one universe to another. AVIATION Bharadwaj’s designs and descriptions are Profound Secret: The technique to make a flying machine invisible through the application of sunlight and wind force. Living Secret: The technique to make an invisible space machine visible through the application of electrical force. Secret of Eavesdropping: The technique to listen to a conversation in another plane. Visual Secrets: The technique to see what's happening inside another plane. Through his innovative and brilliant discoveries, Acharya Bharadwaj has been recognized as the pioneer of aviation technology CHEMISTRY In ancient India, chemistry was called Rasayan Shastra, Rasa-Vidya, Rasatantra and Rasakriya Chemistry being the basic Science of Nature was pursued by ancient Inida’s Scientists to create Colours, Chemicals, Fertilizers, Warhead materials, food preservatives, spices and above all Gems and Crystals. Purification of Silver, Gold and other precious metals. Medicinal Chemistry of Plants and Herbs. Bio Chemistry of Natural Fertilizers all point towards a rich foundation of Chemistry in India from ancient times Greatest Weakness - - - - Greatest Strength THANK YOU…….