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Transcript
Diagramming Dependent Clauses
Adjective, Adverb and Noun Clauses
What is a Clause?
• MEMORIZE these two definitions:
1. a PHRASE is a group of words without a subject
and verb, used as a single part of speech
2. a CLAUSE is a group of words with a subject and
verb
We have already studied
• two kinds of PHRASES (with or without S/V?)
1. Verb phrase: a main verb and all its helpers
(Ex. Rex has been chasing cars.)
2. Prepositional phrase: a preposition, its object and
any modifiers of the object
(Ex. Rex ran through the dark woods.)
NOTICE!! A verb phrase has no subject within it. But a
SENTENCE always has a subject and a verb. So every
sentence you have studied thus far has been a
CLAUSE.
This means…
• You have been studying one kind of clause—
1. MAIN or INDEPENDENT CLAUSE: a group of
works with a subject and verb that can stand
alone
NOW!! We will study
2. DEPENDENT or SUBORDINATE CLAUSE: a group
of words with a subject and verb that CANNOT
STAND ALONE and that is used as a single part of
GET
EXCITED!
speech
Just a reminder:
• A sentence always
includes AT LEAST ONE
MAIN CLAUSE. For a
sentence is “a group of
words with a subject
and verb expressing a
complete thought.”
And Now-Cue the drum roll, please!
We will learn about
groups of words with a
subject and verb that
cannot stand alone
Babies cannot stand alone! They are
dependent! This is what FRIGHTENS
ME!!
Why would we need dependent clauses?
• Let’s think back to our study of modifiers. We
found we needed more information about our
subjects and verbs. First we studied one-word
modifiers: Rex barked yesterday. But what if
we wanted to be more specific?: Rex barked in
the afternoon. Now a whole phrase is
modifying the subject and verb.
Check this out:
verb
noun
adjective
Conjunction
Rex barked when the mailman came.
So what the heck do we do with this?!
Rex barked when the mailman came
Now we have something with a conjunction,
adjective, noun and verb…but it is a UNIT. Did the
mailman do the coming? Yes, so we have a
subject and a verb—another one! RATS!
What we have in “when the mailman came” is a
GROUP OF WORDS
1. with a subject and a verb
2. that cannot stand alone (try it!)
3. that is used as a single part of speech (an adverb that
answers “when?”)
A Dependent (subordinate) CLAUSE
What is a clause again?
a GROUP OF WORDS
1. with a subject and a verb
2. that cannot stand alone (try it!)
3. that is used as a single part of speech (an adverb that
answers “when?”)
When did Rex bark?
SO!:
Prepositional PHRASES:
DEPENDENT CLAUSES:
Yesterday (an adverb)
In the afternoon (An adverb phrase)
When the mailman came (An adverb clause)
• Adverb phrases
• Adjective phrases
• Adverb clauses
• Adjective clauses
• Noun clauses
We are going to begin here—
they’re the easiest!
Rex barked when the mailman came.
Rex
barked
mailman came
Let’s practice with these:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Rex barked after the mailman left.
Rex barked because he hates the mailman.
Rex barked until the sun went down.
If he does not stop barking, Rex will be very
sorry.
5. Since Rex started barking, three people have
called.
What do you
observe about
adverb clauses
from these
examples?
What do you
observe about
ADVERB
CLAUSES
from these
1. ACs answer “why” and
examples?
some other strange things.
What does “if” answer? It tells something like “under
what circumstances?” (Maybe answering “how”?)
2. ACs are introduced by a connecting word. These
sentences had after, because, until, if and since.
3. ACs, like other adverbs may move to the front of the
sentence.
4. When the AC comes first, it is followed by a comma:
“Since Rex started barking, three people have called.”
What is the difference here?
Rex ran after the ball.
Subordinating
conjunction
Preposition
Rex barked after the
mailman came.
Subordinating Conjunctions
•
•
•
•
Introduce an adverb clause
Joins a clause to a main clause
There are TONS of them!
How many words can you think of to fill the
dashed line?
they
left
it
rained
Subordinating=
something of lower rank
• Nellie caught the ball.
• Because Nellie caught the ball
– Which one can stand alone? Why?
– Thus,
• Coordinating conjunctions: joins two equal words,
phrases or clauses (FANBOYS)
• Subordinating conjunctions: _________________
Before we bust a move:
What about this?
Nellie is taller than Harry.
Nellie is as tall as Mary.
EEK!!
What’s wrong here?
Some words are left out—which ones?
Nellie
is
Than always
=
conjunction
taller
Harry
(is)
(tall)
An elliptical expression (clause) is one which
has some words left out.
Nellie
is
tall
Mary
(is)
(tall)
Try These:
• You like Millie better than I.
• You like Millie better than me.