Download 8.2 Major Endocrine Organs

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Kidney wikipedia, lookup

Estrogen wikipedia, lookup

Prolactin wikipedia, lookup

History of catecholamine research wikipedia, lookup

Triclocarban wikipedia, lookup

Neuroendocrine tumor wikipedia, lookup

Xenoestrogen wikipedia, lookup

Menstrual cycle wikipedia, lookup

Pancreas wikipedia, lookup

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency wikipedia, lookup

Bioidentical hormone replacement therapy wikipedia, lookup

Hormone replacement therapy (male-to-female) wikipedia, lookup

Breast development wikipedia, lookup

Thyroid wikipedia, lookup

Hyperthyroidism wikipedia, lookup

Hyperandrogenism wikipedia, lookup

Endocrine disruptor wikipedia, lookup

Mammary gland wikipedia, lookup

Adrenal gland wikipedia, lookup

Hypothalamus wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Chapter 8: The Endocrine System
Lesson 8.2
Major Endocrine Organs
Major Endocrine Organs
1. Hypothalamus
2. Pituitary Gland
3. Thyroid Gland
4. Parathyroid Gland
5. Thymus Gland
6. Pineal Gland
7 Adrenal Glands
8. Pancreas
9. Gonads
Figure 8.1 - page 269
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
The Hypothalamus
The Endocrine System is run by the Hypothalamus
- Buried deep within the brain (4 grams)
- Collects information from each body system
+ integrate response with the NS
+ maintains homeostasis by regulating
» metabolism
» heart rate
» energy level
» body temperature
» Thirst
The Hypothalamus controls by releasing hormones to stimulate/inhibit Pituitary Hormones.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Pituitary Gland
Pituitary Gland
- pea shaped, two lobes
- located in the depression
of the Sphenoid bone
- suspended underneath
the Hypothalamus by a
short stalk.
infundibulum
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary
Figure 8.6 – page 277
Anterior Pituitary
secretes two types of
hormones:
- act directly on
targeted tissue
- stimulate other
endocrine glands
Tropins
- lastly, stores
hormones of the
hypothalamus
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary
• growth hormone (GH) - directly affect
– growth of bone and muscles
• prolactin (PRO) – directly affect
– growth of mammary glands
– milk production in a nursing mother
• adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) - Tropin
– release of steroid hormones from adrenal cortex
• thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) - Tropin
– release of T4 and T3 from thyroid gland
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary
• follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) - Tropin
– in females
• estrogen production
• egg production
– in males
• sperm production
• luteinizing hormone (LH) - Tropin
– in females
• ovulation
– in males
• testosterone
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Hormones of the Posterior Pituitary
Produced in the Hypothalamus,
stored in the posterior Pituitary
• antidiuretic hormone
– acts on kidney, decreases
urine output
Figure 8.7 – page 278
• oxytocin
– acts on uterus, causes
contractions
– acts on breast, causes
secretion of milk
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Major Endocrine Glands - Thyroid
• Thyroid gland
- inferior to the larynx, two inches long, butterfly
shaped, lies front and sides of the trachea
– Secrete two hormones
• Thyroid hormone (needs iodine)
- thyroxine T4 and triiodothyronine T3
- controls rate of metabolism
• Calcitonin
- removes calcium from blood, puts into
bones
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Major Endocrine Glands - Parathyroid
• Parathyroid gland
– parathyroid hormone (PTH) – increases blood calcium
levels
Three ways:
1. removes calcium from bones (breakdown osteoclasts),
puts into blood
2. Increase calcium absorption in intestines
3. Stimulate kidney reabsorption of calcium from urine
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Major Endocrine Glands – Thymus &
Pineal
• Thymus gland
–
–
–
–
Both part of endocrine and lymphatic system
Lies under sternum and anterior to heart
Large during childhood, shrinks with age
Thymosin
• development of immune system – T lymphocytes (white
blood cells) aka T Cells
• Pineal gland
– Pine cone shaped in brain – unclear how it works
– Melatonin
• produces sleepiness
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Adrenal Glands
• adrenal medulla
– epinephrine and norepinephrine
• adrenaline rush
• adrenal cortex
– mineralocorticoids
• aldosterone
• sodium and water reabsorbed in kidneys
– glucocorticoids
• cortisone and cortisol
• promote gluconeogenesis
– sex hormones
• estrogen and androgens
• maintains sexual characteristics
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Adrenal Glands
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Pancreas
• islets of Langerhans
– alpha cells
• glucagon
• increase blood glucose level
– beta cells
• insulin
• decrease blood glucose level
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Gonads
• testes
– testosterone
• sperm production
• ovaries
– estrogen
• secondary sexual characteristics
• progesterone
• menstrual cycle
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Review and Assessment
Fill in the blanks with: ADH, thyroxine, thymosin, or
adrenal cortex.
1. The thymus gland produces _______________.
2. The posterior pituitary gland produces oxytocin
and _______________.
3. Mineralocorticoids are produced by the
_______________.
4. T4 is also called _______________.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.