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N5
Music Through The Ages
Baroque Music
Baroque
Concerto
Opera
Scale
Major / Minor
Chord / Harmony
Broken chord / Arpeggio
Pedal
Inverted Pedal
Canon
Binary AB
Ternary ABA
Concerto
Cadenza
Harpsichord
Ground Bass
Soprano / Alto
Tenor / Bass
Mezzo Soprano / Baritone
Ornament
Trill
Episode
Homophonic/Polyphonic
Syllabic / Melismatic
All concepts in red are Higher concepts
The word Baroque was first used to describe
the highly decorative and grand style of
architecture and art of the 17th Century
•
Musicians adopted the word using it to
describe the musical styles of the years
1600-1750
The system of Modes, which the tonality was based
on in the Medieval and Renaissance periods was
disused and by the end of the 17th Century music was
based on Major and Minor tonalities.
Many new musical structures were introduced and
developed by Baroque composers including......
Opera
Aria
Concerto
Cadenza
Oratorio
Suite
Recitative
Concerto Grosso
Fugue
There were many important
composers in the Baroque period....
The two most influential were:
George Frederic Händel
•1685-1759
•Born in Halle, Germany
•Died in London England
Johann Sebastian Bach
•1685-1750
•Born in Eisenach, Germany
•Died Leipzig Germany
Baroque Instrumental Music
The Baroque Orchestra Contained
•A string section
•1 or 2 flutes (or recorders), oboes and
bassoons
•1 or 2 horns and occasionally
trumpets (NO VALVES !!!)
•Timpani
•Organ or Harpsichord (Continuo)
The Violin family (Violin, Viola, Cello
and Double bass) replaced the viols of
the renaissance period in the first half
of the Baroque period.
The organ or harpsichord played a continuo or figured bass
The performer follows a Bass line
with a series of figures (Figured
bass) which tells the player which
chords to improvise around
The key styles of instrumental composition in
the baroque period were.............
Fugue
http://www.educationscotland.gov.uk/learnlisteningonline/higherandadvancedhigher/musi
caltopics/form/Fugue.asp
http://www.pgsarts.co.uk/listening1.html
Ground Bass - A theme in the bass which is repeated
many times while the upper parts are varied.
Suite
Concerto Grosso
Concerto Grosso
Was one of the most important
forms developed in the
Baroque period
In concerto Grosso, a small
group of soloists called the
Concertino contrast against
the orchestra Ripieno
The most well known concerto Grosso are the
Brandenburg concertos by J.S Bach
Fugue
Composers moved away from the homophonic
texture; where all parts move together to
polyphonic/contrapuntal writing, where two or more
parts move at different times from each other
The fugue is the most important type of polyphonic
writing in the Baroque period, and is based on
imitation.
The fugue uses 3 or 4 parts which merge together and
overlap using imitation
Fugues were mostly written for harpsichord or organ
The two main types of Baroque vocal compositions are
Opera and Oratorio, These are similar but have some differences....
Feature
4 Part Choir
Orchestra
Solo Voices
Sacred Story
Secular story
Costumes
Scenery
Acting
Opera
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Oratorio
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
Opera would be
performed in a
concert Hall or
Opera house
Oratorio would
be performed in a
church
The solo song in opera and Oratorio is called an Aria,
The key features of an aria are.......
Accompanied by
orchestra
Usually in ternary
form
Known as Da Capo Arias
Syllabic: where each syllable of each word is given 1 musical note to be sung
Melismatic: where each syllable can be given more than one note per syllable
Word Painting: Where the musical line reflects the words being sung
Homophonic
• Texture where you hear
melody with
accompaniment or where all
the parts play a similar
rhythm at the same time.
• See how the parts all have
the same rhythm here:
Polyphonic
Texture which consists of two or more melodic lines, possibly of
equal importance, which weave independently of each other.
Polyphonic is similar in meaning to contrapuntal.
Episode
A section of music linking two appearances of the same
material. Listen to an episode from a Concerto Grosso.
In Fugue an episode can be used as a modulating link
between entries of the subject and is frequently based
on fragments from the subject or Counter subject.
Episode
Pedal Short for pedal point. A note which is sustained, or repeated
continuously, in the bass beneath changing harmonies.
In the notation, a pedal note can be seen in the lower part.
Inverted Pedal
A note which is held on or repeated continuously
at a high pitch. Opposite in pitch to pedal.