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S3 Listening Unit 2
Baroque Music
The word Baroque was first used to
describe the highly Decorative and
Grand style of Architecture and art of
the 17th Century
•
Musicians adopted the word using it to
describe the musical styles of the years
1600-1750
The system of Modes, which the tonality was based
on in the Medieval and Renaissance periods was
disused and by the end of the 17th Century music was
based on Major and Minor tonalities
Many new musical structures were introduced and
developed by Baroque composers including......
Aria
Opera
Suite
Oratorio
Concerto Grosso
Recitative
Fugue
The were Many important
composers in the baroque period....
The 2 most influential were
George Frederic Handel
•1685-1759
•Born Halle Saxony
•Died London England
Johann Sebastian Bach
•1685-1750
•Born Thuringia Germany
•Died Leipzig Germany
Baroque Instrumental
Music
The Baroque Orchestra Contained
•A string Section
•1 or 2 Flutes (or recorders), Oboes and
Bassoons
•1 or 2 Horns and occasionally trumpets
(NO VALVES !!!)
•Timpani
•Organ or Harpsichord (Continuo)
The Violin family
(Violin, Viola, Cello and
Double bass) replaced
the viols of the
rennaisance period in the
first half of the baroque
period
The organ or harpsichord played a continuo or figured bass
The performer follows a Bass line
with a series of figures (Figured
bass) which tells the player which
chords to improvise around
The key styles of instrumental composition in
the baroque period were.............
Concerto Grosso
Fugue
Suite
Ground Bass
Concerto Grosso
Was one of the most important
forms developed in the
Baroque period
In concerto Grosso, a small
group of soloists called the
Concertino contrast against
the orchestra Ripieno
The most well known concerto
Grosso are the Brandenburg
concertos by J.S Bach
Fugue
Composers moved away from the homophonic
texture; where all parts move together to
polyphonic/contrapuntal writing, where 2 or more
parts move at different times from each other
The fugue is the most important type of Polyphonic
writing in the Baroque period, and is based on
imitation
The fugue uses 3 or 4 parts which merge together and
overlap using imitation
Fugues were mostly written for Harpsichord or
organ
Suite
The suite is a set of dances originating
from the Renaissance period
Allemande
Suites contain several
contrasting dances
Sarabande
Courante
Passepied
Bouree
Gigue/Jig
Minuet
????
•In compound time
(6/8, 9/8.......)
•In ¾ simple time
•Lively 2/4 or 4/4
•Ternary form
•Begins with
anacrusis
•Very fast tempo
Other than the Minuet, the dances are usually in Binary form
The 2 main types of Baroque vocal compositions are
Opera and Oratorio, These are similar but have some differences....
Feature
4 Part Choir
Orchestra
Solo Voices
Sacred Story
Secular story
Costumes
Scenery
Acting
Opera
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Oratorio
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
Opera would be
performed in a
concert Hall or
Opera house
Oratorio would
be performed in a
church
The solo song in opera and Oratorio is called an Aria,
The Key features of and Aria are.......
Accompanied by
orchestra
Usually in Ternary
form
Known as Da Capo
Arias
Syllabic: where each syllable of each word is given 1 musical note to be sung
Melismatic: where each syllable can be given more than one note per syllable
Word Painting: Where the musical line reflects the words being sung
The choir in an Opera or Oratorio is called a Chorus
In an Oratorio there is a chorus
known as a Chorale...
A Chorale is another name for a Hymn
tune
Chorales are also found outwith an
Oratorio..... J.S Bach wrote many of
these
The key features of a Chorale are..
•Sung in 4 part Harmony (SATB)
•Use of definate cadences
•Use of Passing notes
•Use of Suspensions
The key features of a Chorale are..
•Sung in 4 part Harmony (SATB)
•Use of definate cadences
•Use of Passing notes
•Use of Suspensions