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Greece’s Golden Age Chapter 4 Section 4 Greek Philosophy • After its defeat, Athens became home to several philosophers who tried to understand human life. • The work of many of these Greek philosophers are still influential today. Socrates and The Rise of Political Philosophy • One of the greatest contributions of Greece was its origination of political philosophy. • Just before and during the Pelopponnesian War, an Athenian citizen, Socrates, began raising questions such as, “What is justice?” • Socrates asked these questions of his fellow citizens, in public places. Socratic Method • Socrates’ mode of inquiry, asking questions and analyzing the answers, became known as the Socratic Method. • He was viewed as a threat to Athenians settled way of life. • He was finally put to death by Athens for corrupting the youth. Death of Socrates Jacques-Louis David (1748–1825) Plato • Socrates’ most famous student was Plato, who wrote the first great works of political philosophy. • His most famous work is The Republic, • His books are written as dialogues, or conversations. • These conversations are usually between a character named Socrates, and other Athenian citizens. Aristotle • Plato started a school, called The Academy. • His most famous student was Aristotle. • Aristotle wrote many works of philosophy, and made the first systematic effort to collect and organize information on a wide variety of topics. • Considered to be the first scientist. • His works are written as treatises, which are more systematic, but much drier than dialogues. • One of these is the Politics, the first systematic treatise on politics. Other Greek Contributions Sciences • Along with theater and philosophy, other things were gaining importance in studies. Astronomy, Astrology and Medicine left lasting effects of this great Greek society. Gov’t • Most important was the idea started by the Athenians known as a Democracy or a representative government. Olympic Games • Greece gave rise to the Olympics games • Every 4 years, some 40,000 Greeks crowded into the stadium built in Olympia to watch competitions. – Earliest games featured foot races of about 200 yards. • Later athletes also competed in wrestling, boxing, jumping, javelin and discus throwing events – Allowed soldiers and athletes a way to compete and gain glory and honor through competition.