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Egypt & The Nile
Originally called
Kemet, after the
black soil that
was located
 Later named
Egypt by Greeks
Nile Valley
Nile Stretches 4,160 miles (worlds
longest river).
 Begins in a mountainous region and
flows downhill towards Mediterranean
 Before emptying, marshy Nile Delta
 In springtime the Nile floods & deposits
fertile silt.
Early Peoples
As early as 5000 years ago man
began to settle in the Nile valley.
 Leaders united these early peoples
into kingdoms.
 By 4000 BCE two main kingdoms
 Upper- southern Egypt
 Lower- northern Egypt
Narmer (Menes)
Around 3000 BCE, the king of upper
Egypt heads north to conquer lower
 Capital City of Memphis.
 First Dynasty in Egyptian history.
The Old Kingdom
2700-2200 BCE
 Governed by a theocracy: government &
religion ruled by same group or person.
 Pharaoh: religious and govt. leader of
Ancient Egypt.
 Delegated many responsibilities to
The Pyramids
 Step
Pyramid: built for king Djoser
(zoser). A collection of Mastabahs
 Later Egyptians built 3 pyramids
at Giza (largest is the Great
Pyramid, 481 feet high).
 Pyramids served as tombs for
Ancient Egypt
The Middle and New Kingdoms
Decline and Chaos
Around 2200 BCE The kings of
Memphis begin to lose power.
 Violence and upheaval plagued
the dynasties of the Old
 Around 2050 the capital is
moved to Thebes and a new
dynasty begins. 2050 – 1670 BCE
The Theban Kings
Soldiers captured Nubia and charged taxes,
or tributes. The Nubians paid the taxes called
tributes to Pharaoh.
Supported new projects
 Built Canals
 Irrigation Ditches
Traded with other nations
 Arabian Peninsula
 African Nations
The Middle Kingdom
During the Middle
Kingdom, arts,
literature, and
architecture thrived.
Painters covered the
walls of tombs and
temples with colorful
scenes of the gods
and daily life.
Sculptors created
large wall carvings
of the pharaohs.
Instead of pyramids,
they buried the
pharaoh in tombs
cut into the cliffs .
Hyksos Rule
1700BCE Local leaders began
to challenge the rule of the
 Hyksos, a people from western
Asia swept into Egypt
Bronze Weapons
Horse Drawn Chariots
Hyksos rule Egypt for 150 years
The Fall of the Hyksos
Egyptians gained the skills of the
Hyksos and turned against them.
Khamose Ahmose 1550 – 1480 BC
The New Kingdom
1550 – 1080 BC
Rule of Ahmose
1600BCE Ahmose
gathers forces and
drives out the
This Begins the New
Extends empire to
the East and North
Rebuilding Egypt
First Ahmose then Hatshepsut
are dedicated to restoring the
glory of Egypt.
 1480 Hatshepsut comes to
power, rules over Egypt as
 Builds up city of Thebes. With
obelisks and statues
Thutmose III
Takes Control and
continues to gain
territory for Egypt
 Battle of Megiddo is a
 Erases Hatshepsut
from records
Amenhotep IV
He and his wife Nefertiti founds new
religion based on single god. First
Monotheists in world history!
 Aton- The sun disk god
 Amenhotep changes his name to
Akhenaton (meaning spirit of Aton)
 Moves capital out of Thebes to show
break from the past
New Faith = New Problems
Akhenaton concentrated on
spreading new religion. Spent
money and time on faith and
neglected the state
As a result Egypt lost territory old
priests became angry
When Akhenaton dies the old
Polytheistic religion comes back
Back to Thebes
After Death of Akhenaton the
priests force Tutankhamen to
reinstate the Polytheistic Religion
and Theban Capital city
 New Dynasty is established after
Tut’s death.
Ramses II & Decline
Rules Egypt for 67 years
Believed to be the Biblical Pharaoh that
tormented Moses
After his death in 1237 Egypt begins a
In 945 Lybians and Kushites take control of
Nile Valley