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Cells Basic Units of structure and function of Life The Cell 1. The Cell Theory All organisms have cells Three Parts of the theory 1) All organisms are made of one or more cells 2) The cell is the basic unit of all living things 3) All cells come from existing cells 2. Eukaryotic Cells – Have a nucleus 3. Prokaryotic Cells – Do NOT have a Nucleus! Does It Have A Nucleus Or Not? 4. Prokaryote- A single celled organism that does not have a nucleus. Example: Bacteria 5. Eukaryote- an organism that has a nucleus enclosed by a membrane. Example: Plants and Animals, Fungi, Protists PARTS OF A CELL • 6. Cells are the smallest living parts in organisms • Basic unit of structure and function 7. CELL MEMBRANE All cells have a cell membrane. Thin layer of tissue that forms the barrier between the cytoplasm & the environment outside the cell. “the skin” CELL MEMBRANE •Acts like a gatekeeper •Controls what substances come into and out of a cell •Protects the cell •Phospholipids 8. ORGANELLES •Structures within the cytoplasm •Each one has a specific job or jobs •Most are surrounded by a membrane NUCLEOLUS pg. 70 9. Nucleolus- small object floating inside nucleus. This is where ribosomes are made. 10. NUCLEUS pg. 70 • An organelle that contains the cell’s DNA and that has a role in processes such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction. • The BRAIN of the Cell….The Control Center…. CYTOPLASM • 11. Gel-like material inside the cell membrane and outside the nucleus. • Contains Organelles Unlike gelatin, the cytoplasm is constantly moving. Jello represents the cytoplasm and the fruit represents the organelles. Cytoskeleton pg 70 •12. Cytoskeleton – A web of proteins that makes the cell stable. It acts like muscles and a skeleton for the cell. This is what the cytoskeleton looks like!!!! 13. MITOCHONDRIA pg. 72 Energy Producers ATP…… •Rod-shaped structures • Produce most of the energy a cell needs to carry out its functions •Turn GLUCOSE into ENERGY! Picture of Mitochondria MITOCHONDRIA pg. 72 • Mitochondria are where cellular respiration takes place. • 14. Oxygen + Glucose Carbon dioxide + Water and ENERGY 15. RIBOSOMES pg. 71 •Make proteins •Smallest of all organelles •All cells have ribosomes •Like a protein factory 16. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM pg. 71 •Series of maze-like passageways •Attaches to the nuclear membrane •Smooth ER- (Does not have Ribosomes) Makes lipids •Rough ER(Has Ribosomes…Makes proteins) 16. cont. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM Internal delivery system that carries proteins & other materials from The ER is like a one part of the system of cell to another. conveyors moving materials from one place to another. Endoplasmic Reticulum 17. GOLGI COMPLEX Pg. 73 •Looks like a flattened collection of sacs & tubes •Receives proteins & other newly formed materials from the ER GOLGI COMPLEX •Packages proteins & releases them into the cell and outside the cell. •Cell’s mailroom Golgi Complex endoplasmic reticulum nucleus protein on its way! DNA RNA vesicle TO: TO: TO: vesicle ribosomes TO: finished protein protein Golgi apparatus Making Proteins 18. LYSOSOMES • Small round structures • Contain powerful digestive enzymes that break down Acts as a wrecking food particles, ball that breaks apart wastes, and cell parts wastes; cleaning crew. • Animal cells Lysosomes PLANT CELLS •Have a few extra organelles that function somewhat differently 19. Large Central Vacuole •Large, round, water-filled sac •Most plant cells have one large central vacuole •Stores food, water and waste •Like a Storage Tank….. Large Central Vacuole 20. Chloroplasts pg 72 • Capture energy from the sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell. • Chlorophyll gives plants their green color. Chloroplasts have chlorophyll that soaks up energy from the sun and uses it to produce food…photosynthesis. Chloroplast Pictures 21. Chloroplasts pg 72 • Photosynthesis takes place in chloroplasts. light Energy • Carbon dioxide + Water Oxygen + Glucose 22. CELL WALL Rigid layer of material called cellulose that surrounds the cells of plants. A rigid structure outside the cell membrane that supports & protects the cell. Cell Walls 23. BACTERIAL CELLS •Usually smaller than plant & animal cells •Have a cell wall, cell membrane, ribosomes, cytoplasm, & genetic material/DNA. •Does NOT contain a nucleus so it is a PROKARYOTE Prokaryotic Cell – Does NOT have a Nucleus!