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Motivation deals with the factors that direct
and energize the behavior of humans and
1. Instinct Approaches; Born to be motivated.
Inborn patterns of behavior that are biologically
determined rather than learned.
Unable to agree on what the primary instincts
They are 18 (in 1908)to 5759 (in 1924) but
they are merely labels for behavior.
2. Drive-Reduction Approaches:
 It is a theory suggesting that when
people lack some basic biological
requirements such as water, a drive to
obtain that requirements (in this case ,
the thirst drive) is produced.
 Drive is a motivational tension, or
arousal, that energizes behavior in order
to fulfill some need.
 Basic kinds of drives called “ primary”,
contrast with “secondary”.
2. Drive-Reduction Approaches (cont.):
 We usually try to satisfy a primary drive
by reducing the need underlying it.
 The reason for such behavior is
 Homeostasis is the process by which an
organism strives to maintain some
optimal level of internal biological
functioning by compensating for
deviations from its usual, balanced
internal state.
3. Arousal Approaches: Beyond Drive
 It is the belief that we try to maintain
certain levels of stimulation and activity,
increasing or reducing them as
 Table 10-1.
 If the levels of stimulation and activity are
too low, we will try to increase them.
4. Incentive Approaches ; Motivation’s Pull.
 It is the theory explaining motivation in
terms of external stimuli, the incentives
that direct and energize behavior.
 In this view, properties of external stimuli
largely account for a person’s motivation.
 Drives and incentives may work together
in motivating behavior.
5. Cognitive Approaches; The Thoughts Behind
 The focus on the role of our thoughts,
expectations, and understanding of the world.
 Expectancy-Value theory , based on two kinds of
cognitions underlie our behavior.
 Our expectation that a behavior will cause us reach
a particular goal.
 Our understanding of the value of that goal to us.
5. Cognitive Approaches ( cont.);
 Cognitive theories draw a key distinction
between intrinsic and extrinsic
 Intrinsic motivation causes us to
participate in an activity for our own
enjoyment, rather than for any tangible
reward that it will bring us.
 In contrast, extrinsic motivation causes
us to do something for a tangible reward.
6. Maslow’s Hierarchy; Ordering
Motivational Needs.
 It is a hierarchy shows how our
motivation progresses up the pyramid
from a basis in the broadest, most
fundamental biological needs to higherorder ones.
 Only when the basic lower-order needs
are met can a person consider fulfilling
higher-order needs.
Love and
Safety needs
Physiological needs
6. Maslow’s Hierarchy (cont.);
 The most basic needs are the physiological
needs such as needs for water, food, sleep,
sex and the like.
 Safety needs , come next, that were people
need a safe, secure environment in order to
function effectively.
 Love and belongingness needs include the
need to obtain and give affection and to be a
contributing member of some group or
6. Maslow’s Hierarchy (cont.);
 Esteem relates to the need to develop a
sense of self-worth by knowing that others
are aware of one’s competence and value.
 Self-actualization is a state of self-fulfillment
in which people realize their highest
potential in their own unique way.
 But how to validate the ordering of the
stages and how to measure selfactualization objectively.
It is useful to employ several theories
simultaneously in order to understand a
particular motivational system.
We proceed to consider specific motives,
such as the needs for food , achievement,
affiliation, and power.
What are the biological and social factors
that underlie hunger?
Need for achievement is a stable , learned
characteristic in which satisfaction is
obtained by striving for and attaining a
level of excellence.
Need for affiliation is an interest in
establishing and maintaining relationships
with other people.
Need for power is a tendency to seek
impact, control, or influence over others,
and to be seen as a powerful individual.
How do psychologists define and use the
concept of personality?
What do the theories of freud and his
successors tell us about the structure and
development of personality?
What are major aspects of trait, learning,
biological and evolutionary, and humanistic
approaches to personality?
How can we most accurately assess
What are the major types of personality
How do psychologists define and
use the concept of personality?
Personality refers to the relatively
enduring characteristics that
1. Differentiate one person from anther
2. Lead them to act in a consistent and
predictable manner.
3. Both in different situations and over
extended periods of time.
The theories of the structure and
development of personality
According to psychoanalysts, much of
behavior is caused by parts of personality
that are found in the unconscious and of
which we are unaware.
Freud’s theory suggest that personality is
composed of the id, the ego, and the