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 Anatomy
 Study of an organism’s structure – parts that
compose it and their location in the body
 Physiology
 Describes how those parts work
 Organizational hierarchy in the body
 Cells
 Tissues – groups of cells (two or more different cells)
that interact and provide specific functions
 Organs – made of 2 or more different interacting
 Organ systems – 2 or more organs joined physically
or functionally
 A tissue is a group of two or more different cells that work
together to perform a common task or specific function.
 Stem cells are cells that are not specialized (less
differentiated) but give rise to cells that can differentiate
 4 basic types of animal tissues:
Epithelial Tissue
 Consists of one or more layers of tightly packed cells;
deepest layer is anchored to a basement membrane.
• covers body surfaces
• lines hollow organs & body cavities
• lacks blood vessels (avascular)
• functions in protection, absorption & secretion
Epithelial Tissues are classified by:
• Shape of cells on the surface
• Number of layers
Derived structure include hair, scales, feathers, and glands
Epithelial Tissue
Connective Tissue
 Consists of widely spaced cells embedded in a non-living
extracellular matrix.
• most possess blood vessels (vascular)
• functions are highly diverse
 Connective tissues are classified by matrix composition,
types of fibers, cell specializations, and ratio of cells to
 Types:
 Loose Connective
 Dense Connective
 Adipose (fat)
 Blood
 Cartilage
 Bone
Connective Tissue
Muscle Tissue
 Consists of contractile cells.
• provides voluntary &
involuntary movements
• contracts when actin &
myosin filaments slide past
each other. (Myosin changes
• protein interaction.
Three types:
 Skeletal
 Cardiac
 Smooth
Nervous Tissue
 Consists of neurons (nerve
cells) and neuroglia (support
 Typical neuron has dendrites,
cell body & axon.
 Neurons function to transmit
signals from one part of the
body to another.
 Communication
Organ Systems of Humans
 11 different organ systems
 Organ is composed of two or more different tissues that
work together to perform a common task or function
 Organs system is composed of two or more organs that
work together to perform a common task or function.
 Function to of all 11 systems is to maintain homeostasis.
5 groups of organ systems
Nervous system
Endocrine system
Support and movement
Skeletal system
Muscular system
Acquiring energy
Digestive system
Cardiovascular system
Respiratory system
Integumentary system
Urinary system
Immune system (Lymphatic system)
Reproductive system
1. Nervous System (Brain, spinal cord and Nerves)
 Detects, interprets & responds to stimuli from outside & within body.
 Rapid communication.
2. Endocrine System (Endocrine Glands and Hormones)
 Secretes hormones that travel in the bloodstream.
 Hormonal communication – slow communication with target but
prolonged effects.
Nervous & endocrine systems integrate & coordinate activities
of all organ systems.
Support and Movement
3. Skeletal System (Skeleton)
 Provides framework for muscle attachment; contains bone
marrow; protects soft organs; stores minerals.
4. Muscular System (Muscles)
 Enables body to move; provides for heartbeat, digestion & lung
Skeletal & muscular systems interact to provide support
and allow movements.
Acquiring Energy
5. Respiratory System (Lungs and passageways)
 Gas exchange - obtains O2 & releases CO2.
6. Cardiovascular System (Heart, Vessels, and Blood)
 Transports O2, CO2, nutrients, hormones & metabolic wastes.
7. Digestive System (Stomach, Intestines, Liver, and Pancreas)
 Breaks down nutrients & eliminates undigested food.
These 3 systems interact to provide us with energy (ATP)
and energy transport.
8. Integumentary System (Skin and Glands)
 Serves as a barrier; helps regulate body temperature; conserves
9. Urinary System (Kidneys, Bladder, and Passageways)
 Excretes metabolic wastes and toxins; maintains volume &
composition of body fluids.
10. Immune System (Lymph nodes, Vessels, and Lymph)
 Protects body from infection, injury & cancer.
These 3 systems protect the body.
11. Reproductive System (Gonads and Genitalia)
 Enables an individual to produce gametes, gamete transfer, and
the female to carry & give birth of offspring.
 Gametes are sperm and ova
The reproductive system is vital for perpetuation of the
 Internal environment of
interstitial fluid and plasma
must be kept constant
 External environment
changes constantly
 Homeostasis – maintaining
a state of internal
 Tissues and organs work
together to maintain
Feedback loops
 Negative feedback
 Most common
 Action counters an existing
 Sensors monitor variable
 Effector’s response
counteracts change
 Positive feedback
 Less common
 Amplifies change
 Blood clotting
 Milk secretion