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Global Environment
 Post-bipolarity, one superpower emerged: The USA
 No balance in system anymore
 Redefining NATO
 Emerging supranational entity of the EU
 A new “enemy” – false notion of “clash of
civilisations”
 Role of Non-State actors increasingly important.
Post-9/11 these trends further intensified
Terrorism became one of two central points of
Global politics
The other central point was AC & D, with a
focus on nuclear proliferation – but a shift in the
nuance
Role of NSAs gained more prominence
asymmetric warfare
Targeting of Muslim states – GMEI &
BMEI – and Islam in guise of “freedom of
speech”
Undermining of UN collective security
system with creation of Coalitions of the
Willing –
US and its Core States framework
US NSSP in which preemption is the key
at Political, Military and Economic Levels
So now two contrary pulls on global
system:
one is the US-centric pull and the other is
the economic interdependence of global
economy PLUS emerging principles like
Right to Humanitarian Intervention & the
ICC
GENESIS OF TERRORISM
 Separating pathological violence from
terrorism which has a political dimension
 Difficult to define terrorism but
increasingly a consensus has evolved
whereby targeting of civilians regardless of
political aspects involved is regarded as
terrorism
 One basic definition of terrorism:
“terrorism involves the use of violence or the
threat of violence by the perpetrators against an
instrumental target in order to communicate to a
primary target a threat of future violence”.
3 dimensions
the act or threat of violence; the emotional
reaction; the social effects.
3 actors involved:
the perpetrator of the violence – the victim
and the target.
But two other issues remain:
One: principle of self determination as
inscribed in UN Charter
Two: state terrorism
3 types of terrorism can be identified:
One: International terrorism
Two: local, sub national armed groups using
violence and terror tactics
Three: State terrorism
Causes of Terrorism
Terrorism is to a large extent a symptom of
deep seated political and economic
problems, unresolved conflicts
Framing the issue in religious terms at the
global level has also indirectly led to a rise
in extremist mindset
Globalisation itself has created violent
reactions
Economic globalisaton
Cultural globalisation
Political globalisation
And just as mainstream international system
has become more globalised so has
terrorism
Notion of “netwar” used by Bruce Hoffman
Combating Terrorism in Pakistan:
Nature of the threat and strategic
planning at national level
Operational environment:
The security situation in Pakistan has and
continues to be a major source of concern.
Pakistan has suffered on all fronts, politically,
socially, economically.
The GWOT has had tremendous economic costs
- Loss of markets and the increase in price of
exports due to rising costs of insurance etc.
- Travel advisories have undermined FDI and
tourism
-The overall distrust in the US of Muslims; most
US firms and businesses treated Pakistanis with
distrust if not with contempt.
- Other costs included internally the increasing
targeted killings of the military & security
forces; continuing socio-economic damage
through the continuing presence of Afghan
refugees;
- Resurgence of the weapons and drug fallout
One can identify two main strands of terrorism
that have their origins in Pakistan, but which
also have linkages externally.
a) sub-nationalists
Confined largely to Balochistan
The present violence began in 2003-2004 and
the main organisations are the BLA and the BSO
– although now there is also the BRA (Baloch
Republican Army).
Targeting has focused on vital installations,
LEAs (law enforcement agencies) and military
installations and personnel, Non-Balochis and
foreigners employed in Gwadar.
- Primarily, these terrorists use IEDs, targeted
kidnappings and rockets. The funding for these
groups comes primarily from abroad which is
why the GoP feels they have evidence to
connect India to some of the acts of terror. Also,
with the US attempting to destabilise Iranian
Balochistan covertly, some funding may be
coming in from US sources also.
b) Religious extremists of two types
Sectarian – The targets were in the main
sectarian leaders as well as known
professionals/bureaucrats and police officers
belonging to the rival sectarian groups. Sectarian
terrorism was less sensitive to collateral damage
in terms of indiscriminate killing of the rival
sect. Primarily, these terrorists used IEDs, hit
and run tactics as well as suicide bombings.
Weapons and explosives tended to and still
come from Afghanistan and the tribal areas.
Political – which started primarily around 2002,
in the wake of the fall of the Taliban and was a
new dimension of religious terrorism in
Pakistan. Amongst this group of terrorists are
elements of ex JCOs and a terrorist nexus
between Al-Qaeda/Taliban/Lashkar-iJhangvi/Dissident “Jehadi” elements/Afghan
Trained Boys (1979 onwards)/Returnees from
Afghan Prisons/Afghan Refugees/Guantanamo
Bay Returnees. Main weapon is the suicide
bomber.
Counter Terror Strategy
Holistic approach needed – with different
strands to deal with differing dimensions of the
problem.
Military action and military courts only deal
with the immediate problem
There is also the long term issue of altering
mindsets
Also winning over people – 3 diff categories
ORGANISATION OF NSC
Prime Minister – Chairman
Secretariat:
NACTA
Plenary Council
• Deputy Chairman Minister for Interior
• Members
• Minister for Defence
• Minister for Foreign Affairs
• Minister for Finance
• Chairman JCSC
• COAS
• CNS
• CAS
• By Invitation. Others as Required
• Secretary : DG NACTA
Specialist Working Group
• Deputy Chairman DG NACTA
• Members
• Heads of Intelligence
Organisations
• Police Rep
• Para Military Rep
• Non-governmental security
experts
• By Invitation: Others as Required
Foundations for a counter terrorism policy
will have to have a strategy premised on:
a) Disengagement from the US War on
Terror as that will deprive the militants of
their distorted narrative of jehad. This will
immediately create a positive environment
for Pakistan to deal with its problem of
militancy and terrorism.
b) Isolating the hard core terrorists from their
supporters and the fence sitters.
For Balochistan, laying down of arms amnesty
offer along with economic development and
political empowerment are needed
For Karachi and its mafia terrorism, where
elements of TTP may also be enmeshed,
deweaponisation & depoliticisation of police
needed. The military cannot be used to fight mafia
terrorism as it is not geared for fighting street
crime.
c) Madrassahs
Madrassah reform – including public-private
partnership idea
Registration
Hate speech/literature issue
Illegal constructions – law must apply equally
to all
d) Foreign funding
From Madrassahs to NGOs –
transparency and accountability
CASE OF FATA
Mainstreaming
Economic development