The Byzantine Empire The New Empire Roman Empire divides into east and west East half-Byzantine Empire-varied peoples and cultures capital -Constantinople-center of early Christianity Constantinople 330AD Roman Emperor-Constantine picked the city as capital of the empire lies near 2 straits could control movement between the Mediterranean and Black seas Natural protection on 3 sides triple walls on one side- and a chain across the harbor Constantinople Wealthiest city in the empire-After Rome falls duty is to protect traditions of empire new Rome not just Latin and RomanGreek history and language Christianity-Eastern Orthodoxy Justinian-the Emperor became emperor at age that never sleeps 44-married an actress (held in low esteem) named Theodora-active in women's rights-own land and property equal to that which they had when the entered the marriage widow's would need support of government if they-could not inherit Justinian Rebellion by taxpayers (actually argument over gladiatorial contest)-city set on fire-at the palace gates Theodora talks Justinian into stayinginspired crushed rebels (killed 30,000) ruled without challenge Challenge to get back Rome Persia-Choroses-peace by pay Empire plans to get Italy back Gen. Belisarius does but it is all lost after his death and cost big bucks Code of Laws-legal reform-codify Roman laws legal expert Tribonian-Corpus of Civil Law church -Hagia Sophia-Holy Wisdom Art-icons mosaic-pictures made of tiny pieces of colored glass or flat stones illuminated manuscriptsdecorated books Arts Mosaic Religion Emperors were God's representatives on Earth crowned by the church-oath to defend faith major role-appoint church officials-set style of worship-one faith clergy-church officials (bishops and priest) laity-church members not clergy Icon debate heated debate among Christians icons-religious images in worship Bible forbids--false images or are they reminders of God For -John of Damascus Against Emperor Leo III supporters known as Iconoclast-image breakers many resisted-supported by Roman Church strained by east and west division Leo-against heavyremoves all icons 787AD Empress Irenefirst woman to hold the throne-allowed icons 843AD-allowed pictures but not statues Icon debate The Great Schism Conflict with Rome-Pope supreme head of church in Rome Patriarch head in Constantinople 700AD Italy invaded by Lombards Byzantines would not help -turned to the Franks named Charlamagne emperor west and east churches now totally divided called the Great Schism City life Theology-religious teachings social groups-room to move-marriage sacred-divorce hard to get-one remarriage women-lived partly in seclusion-Theodora changed a lot several educated held government positions--some even ruled most of people farmers and herders-heavy taxes on them commerce thrived in the city Education Schools-government university-church schools tutors for girls literature-salvation of the soul major topic monasteries-religious communities (monks and nuns) missionaries-people sent to carry the religious message successful ones Cyril and Methodiusconverted the Slavs Decline After the death of Justinian-empire started to decline Slavs--Lombards --and Muslims all tried to invade stopped short of Constantinople but large chunks of territory lost Byzantines used chemical weapon called Greek Fire Church Terms Heresy- disagree with church teachings Catholic church charged iconoclast with this Excommunication- not allowed to be a part of church Celibacy- Catholic priest not allowed to marry-Orthodox allowed to marry Slavs Eventually Slavs take over immense plain called the steppe rich soil-bad weather-not farmed 3 rivers of the Slavic area 1.Dnieper 2. Dniester 3.Volga Slavs little known about the Slavs other than they came from Poland Southern Slavs Serbs-Croats--Orthodox Church Bosnians-Islam Eastern Slavs Russians-Ukranians hunted-lived in log houses called izbas used rivers for transportation Rurik and the Vikings Vikings protected -Rurik invited to lead area Rus (Russia) SuccessorsPrince Olegfortress village of Kiev rulers called Grand Prince Government Collection of city-states and principalities or territories ruled by princes 1. administer justice 2. defend frontiers princes assisted by councils of wealthy merchants and land-owning nobles-called boyars Assemblies represented all free adult male citizens 1. daily affairs of the state 2.power to accept or remove princes Christianity Before 900AD worshipped many gods of nature Olga-princess of Kiev is the first member of royal family to adopt Christianity Grandson Vladmir adopted it as official religion Russia –Russian town meetings, when the prince calls a town meeting the head of all households comes to the meeting Yaroslav the Wise-Built churches and Introduced the first law code called the Pravda Russkia Veche Russian Tsars In Russia the Mongols created the Tatar khanates to control Russia. They imposed heavy taxes. Tsar Ivan III refused to pay and the armies faced off. The Tatar backed off. Ivan IV finished off the Tatars by defeating them. He gained the name Ivan the Terrible by waging a campaign of Terror against Russian nobles called boyars. Russia Ivan IV Vasilyevich, called The Terrible, became ruler in 1533 at the age of three became the first Muscovite grand duke to be formally crowned as czar; in the same year he married Anastasia Romanovna, a member of the Romanov family.