Unit 9 - 1 Name: Period: AP Psychology – Guided Reading Unit 9 – Development Psychology 1. What is developmental psychology? 2. What three major issues does developmental psychology focus on? a. b. c. SECTION 1 – PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE NEWBORN 3. From prenatal development, define: a. zygotes: b. embryo: c. fetus: d. teratogens: e. fetal alcohol syndrome: The Competent Newborn 4. What is habituation? SECTION 2 – INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD Physical Development Unit 9 - 2 5. On the day you were born, you had most of the ______________________ you would ever have. 6. What brain area experience the most rapid growth? What are the last cortical areas to develop? 7. When do more complicated motor skills emerge? 8. Average age of earliest conscious memory is _________ years. Cognitive Development 9. Due to Jean Piaget, we now understand that: 10. What was Piaget’s core idea? 11. What are schemas? 12. In terms of assimilation and accommodation, describe how we use and adjust our schemas. 13. Describe (and include age range) Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development. a. sensorimotor stage – b. preoperational stage – c. concrete operational stage – d. formal operational stage – Unit 9 - 3 14. Piaget’s findings today are still widely significant, but today’s researchers see _______________ as more _____________________ than did Piaget. Social Development 15. What is stranger anxiety? 16. What is attachment? (be sure to understand Harlow’s monkeys experiment!!) 17. What is a critical period? 18. What is imprinting? 19. In a strange situation, what is the difference between secure attachment and insecure attachment? 20. What is temperament? 21. _______________ predisposes temperament differences. 22. Erik Erikson said that securely attached children approach life with a sense of basic trust. What does this mean? 23. In humans, the ______________ sometimes become the ___________________. 24. Does day care affect attachment? Explain based on results of studies. Unit 9 - 4 25. When does Darwin belief self-awareness begins? About what age does this happen? 26. What did the study done by Dutch researchers determine in regards to whether self-esteem was lowered by being adopted? 27. Describe the differing parenting styles. a. authoritarian: b. permissive: c. authoritative: 28. What is the author’s word of caution in regards to parenting styles? SECTION 3 – PARENTS AND PEERS Parents and Early Experiences 29. Both ________________ and ____________________ sculpt our synapses. 30. Do parents matter? Explain. Peer Influence 31. What did Howard Gardner (in the study excerpt) conclude about the influence of peers? Do you agree? Why or why not? SECTION 4 - ADOLESCENCEMake sure you know the definitions/descriptions of adolescence and puberty. Figure you already know them, so no sense in writing them down. Unit 9 - 5 32. What changes are going on in adolescent’s brain? Cognitive Development 33. According to Piaget’s formal operations, what are some changes in adolescent reasoning? 34. To be a moral person is to: 35. What was Lawrence Kohlberg looking to show? 36. Be sure to understand Kohlberg’s stages of moral development as listed below. 37. The mind makes moral judgments _________________ and _________________________. 38. Morality involves: Unit 9 - 6 Social Development 39. What did Erik Erikson mean that each stage of life has its own psychosocial task? (be sure to know Erikson’s stages) 40. What is an identity? 41. What is a social identity? 42. According to Erikson, why do some adolescents forge their identity early? 43. Other adolescents may adopt an identity defined in opposition to parents but in conformity with: 44. How does the relationship between adolescents and parents change as adolescents begin to find their own identities? 45. Adolescence is typically a time of ______________________ parental influence and _________ peer influence. Emerging Adulthood 46. Describe emerging adulthood. SECTION 5 – ADULTHOOD Physical Development 47. When do our physical abilities peak? Unit 9 - 7 48. During early and middle adulthood, physical vigor has less to do with age than with: 49. What are some changes in our sensory abilities as we get older? 50. For those growing older, what is the bad and good news about health? 51. What underlies the symptoms of Alzheimer’s? Cognitive Development 52. Nearly ____________ of people over the age of 40 say their memory is worse than it was 10 years ago (no kidding!). 53. What type of memory remains strong as we get older? 54. What is the difference between a cross-sectional study and a longitudinal study? a. What did each study find out about intelligence and aging? 55. What is crystallized intelligence and how does it change with age? 56. What is fluid intelligence and how does it change with age? Unit 9 - 8 Social Development 57. What is a social clock? 58. What are chance events? Examples? 59. What did Erik Erikson say were two basic aspects that dominate adulthood? 60. How does facing death with dignity and unity help?