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New World vs. Old World Old World New World •North America •South America •Europe •Asia •Africa Historian’s believe that Native Americans migrated from Asia about 12,000 years ago across the Bering Straight at the end of the last Ice Age. The Emergence of Native American Civilizations By 1500, North America was home to hundreds of unique Native American cultural groups. Each one very different from one another OLD WORLD Greek and Roman Empires: Western Civilization Let’s look at how the Age of In order to understand how important Exploration began. exploration was to the world, we need to go back to a time when exploration was of little importance---- Middle Ages (500-1350) • During the Middle Ages life was hard and people struggled just to survive. • Society collapsed: Food was scarce, death and disease was rampant, no education and constant warfare Feudal Society King Lords Knights This feudalism was a system of loyalty and protection called worked from... Serfs top to bottom and bottom to top Eventually, life became somewhat easier and people were not so afraid to leave their feudal manors. In 1095 Pope Urban II called on all Christians to leave their homes and defend their faith by joining the Crusades. The Crusades: 1090s-1270s The Crusades were a series of wars fought between Christians and Muslims for the control of the Holy Land. The Holy Land The Middle East The Crusades were important because... Asia Europeans ventured to Asia for the first time. Effects of the Crusades Europeans were introduced to new foods and products. This led to an increase of trade between Europe and Asia “Renaissance” (1400-1600) actually means “rebirth.” It was a rebirth of knowledge and culture in art, religion, science, and learning that had flourished in ancient Greek and Roman times. . . Gutenberg books. printed Michelangelo Galileo painted magnified and sculpted. the heavens. Shakespeare Leonardo invented wrote. and painted Enlightenment l l l Magna Carta (1215) limited the power of the King and the English Bill of Rights protected individual rights of Englishmen John Locke believed people have rights that must be protected by governments. “Every man has a property in his own person. This nobody has a right to, but himself.” Exploration •Trade with Asia led to exploration of the world. •European nations were looking for an all water route to Asia to make $$$ off spices and silk. European Explorers Hall of Fame A few explorers who made a difference. Christopher Columbus- Spain • Columbus was searching for a faster route to Asia.. • October 12, 1492 Columbus landed on what he believed was the Indies • He thought he was in India, but he really had “discovered” the New World • Columbus opened the “New World” for exploration. Amerigo Vespucci- Italy • Amerigo followed Columbus’s route to the New World. Amerigo was an Italian Mapmaker. • He wrote to a friend that he had indeed figured out these were new continents • The AMERICA’s are named after Amerigo! Hernando Cortes - Spain • Spanish conquistadors claimed vast areas of the New World for Spain • In 1519 , Hernan Cortes entered Mexico and made contact with the mighty Aztec Empire. • Mistaken for an Aztec God, Cortes proceeded to destroy and conquer the Aztec Empire Jacques Cartier- France • Cartier was looking for the Northwest Passage, a believed waterway to Asia through North America. •discovered the mouth of the St. Lawrence River. •claimed much of Canada for France. Henry Hudson- England/ Dutch • During his search for the Northwest Passage, but discovered the Hudson River, Hudson Strait, and Hudson Bay.. . • claimed land for both England and Dutch Hudson was viewed as too intense and unfair. Eventually his crew mutinied (rebelled) and left him to die in the icy North Atlantic. Ferdinand Magellan- Spain • Magellan’s voyage was the first to circumnavigate the globe. • However, Magellan was killed in the Philippines during a battle with natives. • His crew put his body in a pickling barrel and finished the voyage, so technically, Magellan did sail around the world. Sir Frances Drake- England Drake was a famous English “Sea Dog” who raided ships of the Spanish Armada. Eventually, he helped defeat the Armada. Drake was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the world. Prince Henry the Navigator- Portugal Henry never explored, but he was instrumental in promoting exploration by: financed many voyages for Portugal. starting a school for navigation at Sagres that initiated many advancements in sailing. The Conquistadors- Spain The conquistadors were the Spanish conquerors who were looking for the “Three G’s”... gold God glory Two of the most famous were: Hernando Cortez who conquered the Aztecs in Mexico. Francisco Pizarro who conquered the Incas in Peru.